Biallelic inactivation of the SDHC gene in renal carcinoma associated with paraganglioma syndrome type 3.
ABSTRACT The etiology and pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are only partially understood. Key findings in hereditary RCC, which may be site specific or a component of a syndrome, have contributed to our current understanding. Important heritable syndromes of RCC are those associated with pheochromocytoma, especially von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) associated with germline VHL mutations, and pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma syndrome (PGL) associated with mutations in one of the four genes (SDHA-D) encoding succinate dehydrogenase. A subset of individuals with SDHB and SDHD germline DNA mutations and variants develop RCC. RCC has never been described as a component of SDHC-associated PGL3. The European-American Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Registry comprises 35 registrants with germline SDHC mutations. A new registrant had carotid body tumor (CBT) and his mother had CBT and bilateral RCC. Blood DNA, paragangliomas, and RCCs were analyzed for mutations and loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) in/flanking SDHC and VHL. The proband with unilateral CBT had a germline SDHC c.3G>A (p.M1I) mutation. His mutation-positive mother had CBT at age 42, clear cell RCC (ccRCC) at age 68, and papillary RCC (pRCC) at age 69. Both paraganglial tumors showed somatic LOH of the SDHC locus. Both ccRCC and pRCC did not have a somatic SDHC mutation but showed LOH for intragenic and flanking markers of the SDHC locus. LOH was also present for the VHL locus. Our findings suggest that RCC is a component of PGL3. Biallelic inactivation of the SDHC gene may represent a new pathway of pathogenesis of syndromic and nonsyndromic RCC, perhaps of both clear cell and papillary histologies.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with germline mutation of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit genes are prone to develop paraganglioma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and rarely renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, SDH-deficient RCC is not yet widely recognized. We identified such tumors by distinctive morphology and confirmed absence of immunohistochemical staining for SDHB. Immunohistochemical features were evaluated using a panel of antibodies to renal tumor antigens. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue. Eleven tumors were identified from 10 patients, 22-72 years of age (median 40). Two patients had paragangliomas, 1 bilateral SDH-deficient RCC, and 1 contralateral oncocytoma. Grossly, tumors were tan or red-brown, 2-20 cm in diameter (median 4.25 cm). Fuhrman grade was 2 (n=10) or 3 (n=1). Stage was pT1a-pT2b. One patient developed widespread metastases 16 years after nephrectomy and died of disease 6 years later. All tumors were composed of uniform eosinophilic cells containing vacuoles or flocculent cytoplasmic inclusions. Architecture was primarily solid; entrapped renal tubules and intratumoral mast cells were common. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for SDHB (11/11) and rarely SDHA (1/11). Labeling was uniformly positive for PAX8 and kidney-specific cadherin and absent for KIT, RCC, and carbonic anhydrase IX. Staining for broad-spectrum epithelial markers was often negative or focal (positive staining for AE1/AE3 in 4/10, CAM5.2 3/7, CK7 1/11, EMA 10/10). By sequencing, SDHB mutation and loss of the second allele were present in 5/6 tumors; the SDHA-deficient tumor showed no SDHB abnormality. SDH-deficient RCC is a unique neoplasm that is capable of progression, often harboring SDHB mutation. A monomorphic oncocytic renal tumor with solid architecture, cytoplasmic inclusions of flocculent material, and intratumoral mast cells should prompt evaluation of SDH status, as it may have implications for screening the patient and relatives. Negative immunohistochemistry for KIT and heterogeneous labeling for epithelial antigens are other supportive features.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 18 July 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.86.Modern Pathology 07/2014; · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: View the histology of these tumours online via the virtual microscope tab at http://www.cancerdxpathology.org.au/ . Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal carcinoma has been accepted as a provisional entity in the 2013 International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification. To further define its morphologic and clinical features, we studied a multi-institutional cohort of 36 SDH-deficient renal carcinomas from 27 patients, including 21 previously unreported cases. We estimate that 0.05% to 0.2% of all renal carcinomas are SDH deficient. Mean patient age at presentation was 37 years (range, 14 to 76 y), with a slight male predominance (M:F=1.7:1). Bilateral tumors were observed in 26% of patients. Thirty-four (94%) tumors demonstrated the previously reported morphology at least focally, which included: solid or focally cystic growth, uniform cytology with eosinophilic flocculent cytoplasm, intracytoplasmic vacuolations and inclusions, and round to oval low-grade nuclei. All 17 patients who underwent genetic testing for mutation in the SDH subunits demonstrated germline mutations (16 in SDHB and 1 in SDHC). Nine of 27 (33%) patients developed metastatic disease, 2 of them after prolonged follow-up (5.5 and 30 y). Seven of 10 patients (70%) with high-grade nuclei metastasized as did all 4 patients with coagulative necrosis. Two of 17 (12%) patients with low-grade nuclei metastasized, and both had unbiopsied contralateral tumors, which may have been the origin of the metastatic disease. In conclusion, SDH-deficient renal carcinoma is a rare and unique type of renal carcinoma, exhibiting stereotypical morphologic features in the great majority of cases and showing a strong relationship with SDH germline mutation. Although this tumor may undergo dedifferentiation and metastasize, sometimes after a prolonged delay, metastatic disease is rare in the absence of high-grade nuclear atypia or coagulative necrosis.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.The American journal of surgical pathology. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in progression of cancer. As a paradigm, the "Warburg effect," which by means of a switch toward anaerobic metabolism enables cancer cells to proliferate in oxygen limiting conditions, is well established. Besides this metabolic transformation of tumors, it has been discovered that mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins are the etiological factors in different types of cancer. This confers to mitochondrial dysfunction a causative role, rather than resultant, in tumor genesis beyond its role in tumor progression and development. Mitochondrial proteins encoded by tumor-suppressor genes are part of the succinate-dehydrogenase, the fumarate-hydratase, and the mitochondrial isocitrate-dehydrogenase enzymes, all of them participating in the Krebs cycle. The spectrum of tumors associated with mutations in these genes is becoming larger and varies between each enzyme. Several mechanisms of tumorigenesis have been proposed for the different enzymatic defects, most of them based on studies using cellular and animal models. Regarding the molecular pathways implicated in the oncogenic transformation, one of the first accepted theories was based on the constitutive expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) at normal oxygen tension, a theory referred to as "pseudo-hypoxic drive." This mechanism has been linked to the three types of mutations, thus suggesting a central role in cancer. However, other alternative molecular processes, such as oxidative stress or altered chromatin remodeling, have been also proposed to play an onco-pathogenic role. In the recent years, the role of oncometabolites, a new concept emerged from biochemical studies upon these tumors, has acquired relevance as responsible for tumor formation. Nevertheless, the actual contribution of each of these mechanisms has not been definitively established. In this review, we summarize the results obtained from mouse strains genetically modified in the three different enzymes.Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:200.