A profile of an endosymbiont-enriched fraction of the coral Stylophora pistillata reveals proteins relevant to microbial-host interactions.
ABSTRACT This study examines the response of Symbiodinium sp. endosymbionts from the coral Stylophora pistillata to moderate levels of thermal "bleaching" stress, with and without trace metal limitation. Using quantitative high throughput proteomics, we identified 8098 MS/MS events relating to individual peptides from the endosymbiont-enriched fraction, including 109 peptides meeting stringent criteria for quantification, of which only 26 showed significant change in our experimental treatments; 12 of 26 increased expression in response to thermal stress with little difference affected by iron limitation. Surprisingly, there were no significant increases in antioxidant or heat stress proteins; those induced to higher expression were generally involved in protein biosynthesis. An outstanding exception was a massive 114-fold increase of a viral replication protein indicating that thermal stress may substantially increase viral load and thereby contribute to the etiology of coral bleaching and disease. In the absence of a sequenced genome for Symbiodinium or other photosymbiotic dinoflagellate, this proteome reveals a plethora of proteins potentially involved in microbial-host interactions. This includes photosystem proteins, DNA repair enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, metabolic redox enzymes, heat shock proteins, globin hemoproteins, proteins of nitrogen metabolism, and a wide range of viral proteins associated with these endosymbiont-enriched samples. Also present were 21 unusual peptide/protein toxins thought to originate from either microbial consorts or from contamination by coral nematocysts. Of particular interest are the proteins of apoptosis, vesicular transport, and endo/exocytosis, which are discussed in context of the cellular processes of coral bleaching. Notably, the protein complement provides evidence that, rather than being expelled by the host, stressed endosymbionts may mediate their own departure.
- SourceAvailable from: Jean-Charles Sanchez[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new 6-plex isobaric mass tagging technology is presented, and proof of principle studies are carried out using standard protein mixtures and human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) comprise a set of structurally identical tags which label peptides on free amino-terminus and epsilon-amino functions of lysine residues. During MS/MS fragmentation, quantification information is obtained through the losses of the reporter ions. After evaluation of the relative quantification with the 6-plex version of the TMT on a model protein mixture at various concentrations, the quantification of proteins in CSF samples was performed using shotgun methods. Human postmortem (PM) CSF was taken as a model of massive brain injury and comparison was carried out with antemortem (AM) CSF. After immunoaffinity depletion, triplicates of AM and PM CSF pooled samples were reduced, alkylated, digested by trypsin, and labeled, respectively, with the six isobaric variants of the TMT (with reporter ions from m/z = 126.1 to 131.1 Th). The samples were pooled and fractionated by SCX chromatography. After RP-LC separation, peptides were identified and quantified by MS/MS analysis with MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI-Q-TOF. The concentration of 78 identified proteins was shown to be clearly increased in PM CSF samples compared to AM. Some of these proteins, like GFAP, protein S100B, and PARK7, have been previously described as brain damage biomarkers, supporting the PM CSF as a valid model of brain insult. ELISA for these proteins confirmed their elevated concentration in PM CSF. This work demonstrates the validity and robustness of the tandem mass tag (TMT) approach for quantitative MS-based proteomics.Analytical Chemistry 05/2008; 80(8):2921-31. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For 30 years it has been assumed that a single species of cyanobacteria, Phormidium corallyticum, is the volumetrically dominant component of all cases of black band disease (BBD) in coral. Cyanobacterium-specific 16S rRNA gene primers and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were used to determine the phylogenetic diversity of these BBD cyanobacteria on coral reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific Seas. These analyses indicate that the cyanobacteria that inhabit BBD bacterial mats collected from the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific Seas belong to at least three different taxa, despite the fact that the corals in each case exhibit similar signs and patterns of BBD mat development.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 05/2003; 69(4):2409-13. · 3.68 Impact Factor
Article: RNA viruses in the sea.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.FEMS microbiology reviews 04/2009; 33(2):295-323. · 10.96 Impact Factor