Effects of erythropoietin on glucose metabolism.
ABSTRACT We purposed to determine the impact of erythropoietin on altering glucose metabolism in the settings of in vitro and in vivo experiments. The acute effect of erythropoietin on lowering blood glucose levels was studied in animal experiments. In [³H]-deoxy-D-glucose isotope studies we measured glucose uptake with insulin and erythropoietin using 3T3-L1 cells cultured under normal or high glucose conditions. Altered activation of Akt and ERK pathways was evaluated in immunoblot analyses. Immunocytochemistry was conducted to determine the glucose transporter 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Addition of erythropoietin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in vivo in rats. The glucose uptake was markedly increased by erythropoietin treatment (at concentrations 0.15, 0.3, and 0.625 ng/ml) in adipocytes grown in high glucose medium (p<0.05), but it remained unaltered in cells under normal glucose conditions. Significant increase of phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was detected due to erythropoietin (p<0.05). Co-administration of erythropoietin and insulin resulted in higher phosphorylation of Akt and [³H]-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in adipocytes than insulin treatment alone. We found that erythropoietin induced the trafficking of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membrane. Our data showed that erythropoietin significantly decreased blood glucose levels both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by increasing glucose uptake via the activation of Akt pathway. Preliminary data revealed that adipocytes most likely exhibit a specific receptor for erythropoietin.
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ABSTRACT: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) reduces serum insulin levels, increases insulin sensitivity, and reduces insulin resistance (IR). However, the mechanisms behind these effects are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which rHuEPO effects IR in 3T3L1 adipocytes. After treatment with different concentrations of rHuEPO, glucose consumption, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), adiponectin, and leptin levels were assayed with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Endogenous erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression was inhibited using small interfering RNA (siRNA). EPOR protein and mRNA expression was detected via immunofluorescence and real-time PCR analyses, respectively. The expression of pAKT/AKT and p-STAT5/STAT5 was determined via Western blot analysis. rHuEPO treatment improved glucose uptake, increased adiponectin levels, and reduced TNF-α and leptin levels in 3T3L1 adipocytes with dexamethasone-induced IR. Whereas EPOR protein and gene expression was absent in preadipocytes, it was observed in mature 3T3L1 adipocytes. However, the expression of EPOR in insulin resistant 3T3L1 adipocytes was significantly decreased (p<0.05). rHuEPO increased the expression of EPOR, and upregulated the expression of pAKT/AKT and pSTAT5/STAT5 in 3T3L1 adipocytes (p<0.05), which was blocked by siEPOR, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, and a STAT5 inhibitor, respectively. In summary, rHuEPO reduced IR in adipocytes by increasing glucose uptake and improving the adipokine profile. rHuEPO-induced EPOR protein expression and subsequent induction of pAKT and pSTAT5 suggest that the EPO-EPOR system may play a role in glucose metabolism within adipocytes.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 01/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (EPO), the required cytokine for promoting the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cells to stimulate erythropoiesis, has been reported to act as a pleiotropic cytokine beyond hematopoietic system. The various activities of EPO are determined by the widespread distribution of its cell surface EPO receptor (EpoR) in multiple tissues including endothelial, neural, myoblasts, adipocytes and other cell types. EPO activity has been linked to angiogenesis, neuroprotection, cardioprotection, stress protection, anti-inflammation and especially the energy metabolism regulation that is recently revealed. The investigations of EPO activity in animals and the expression analysis of EpoR provide more insights on the potential of EPO in regulating energy metabolism and homeostasis. The findings of crosstalk between EPO and some important energy sensors and the regulation of EPO in the cellular respiration and mitochondrial function further provide molecular mechanisms for EPO activity in metabolic activity regulation. In this review, we will summarize the roles of EPO in energy metabolism regulation and the activity of EPO in tissues that are tightly associated with energy metabolism. We will also discuss the effects of EPO in regulating oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial function, the interactions between EPO and important energy regulation factors, and the protective role of EPO from stresses that are related to metabolism, providing a brief overview of previously less appreciated EPO biological function in energy metabolism and homeostasis.International journal of biological sciences. 01/2014; 10(8):921-939.