Article

Successful unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

Pediatric Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Unit, United St. István and St. László Hospital, Budapest, Hungary.
Metabolic Brain Disease (Impact Factor: 2.4). 02/2012; 27(2):193-6. DOI: 10.1007/s11011-012-9279-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a chronic, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder causing motor and behavioral dysfunction due to decreased synthesis of the enzyme hypoxantine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Affected boys have mental retardation, delayed development, extrapyramidal motor disturbances and self-injuring behavior. As hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been shown to be effective in several neurodevelopmental inborn errors, we hypothesized that it could be favorable in LNS as well. Following a myeloablative conditioning regimen (busulphan 3.2 mg/kg/day for 4 days, cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg/day for 2 days with ATG Thymoglobin 2.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days) an unrelated umbilical cord blood unit was transfused at the age of 2 years. The graft was a 6/6 HLA-matched at HLA-A, B loci by antigen level, and at DRB1 by allelic level typing. Infused total nucleated cell dose was 3.6 × 10e7 per kilogram body weight. Serum HPRT levels reached normal values by the end of the sixth month post transplant. Slow neurodevelopmental improvement seen during the three-year follow-up and the missing self-injuring behavior can be considered as a proof for the presence of enzyme-competent cells behind the blood-brain barrier.

0 Followers
 · 
154 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a rare inborn error of metabolism with very poor prognosis. Patients vary in many ways but all seem to have impairments to some degree in uric acid metabolism, motor development, and behavior. A careful evaluation is essential toward making the appropriate diagnosis. A case of infant with motor delay, spasticity, dystonia, and crystalluria is reported. Treatment based on allopurinal (12 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) reduced serum hyperuricemia to values < 7 mg/dl.
    Pediatria polska 05/2013; 88(3):286–289. DOI:10.1016/j.pepo.2013.02.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The identification of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in adults presenting with a wide range of neurological symptoms is a relatively new field in medicine. We sought to identify which treatable IEM have been diagnosed for the first time in adults and generate a protocol for metabolic screening targeting those treatable disorders. Methods Medline/Pubmed searches of English language literature limited to the adult age group were performed. Diseases identified through this search were then compared to previously published lists of treatable IEM in both adults and children. Results 85% of the treatable conditions known to cause global developmental delay or intellectual disability in children had reports where the diagnosis of that IEM was made in one or more adult patients with neurological symptoms. Screening tests in blood, urine, CSF and MRI can detect most of these treatable conditions but the diagnostic accuracy of these screening tests in adults is not clear. Conclusion Treatable IEM need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological symptoms in patients of any age.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 12/2013; 110(4):431–438. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.10.002 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD), characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, with limitations of learning, adaptive behavior and skills, are frequent (2.5% of the population affected) and present with significant co-morbidity. The burden of IDD, in terms of emotional suffering and associated health care costs are significant; prevention and treatment therefore are important. A systematic literature review, updated in 2013, identified 89 inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), which present with IDD as prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. Therapeutic effects include improvement and/or stabilisation of psychomotor/ cognitive development, behaviour/psychiatric disturbances, seizures, neurologic and systemic manifestations. The levels of available evidence for the various treatments range from Level 1b,c (n=5); Level 2a,b,c (n=14); Level 4 (n=53), Level 4–5 (n=27). Five experts translated this data into a 2-tiered diagnostic algorithm: The first tier comprises metabolic “screening” tests in urine and blood, which are relatively accessible, affordable, less invasive, and have the potential to identify 60% of all treatable IEMs. The second tier investigations for the remaining disorders are ordered based on individual clinical signs and symptoms. This algorithm is supported by an App www.treatable-id.org, which comprises up-to-date information on all 89 IEMs, relevant diagnostic tests, therapies and a search function based on signs and symptoms. These recommendations support the clinician in early identification of treatable IEMs in the child with IDD, allowing for timely initiation of therapy with the potential to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. The need for future studies to determine yield and usefulness of these recommendations, with subsequent updates and improvements to developments in the field, is outlined.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 04/2014; 111(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.01.011 · 2.83 Impact Factor
Show more