Chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer-one step closer.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Since for pancreatic cancer the mortality rate approaches the incidence rate with only 1-4% of all patients surviving 5 years, it would be would be of great value to provide chemopreventive treatment for high-risk individuals. DISCUSSION: The preclinical study of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs) has recently been made possible by the generation of genetically modified animal models, which recapitulate human PanINs and invasive pancreatic cancer on a genetic and histomorphologic level. Very recently, several groups have reported first evidence of chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer.
- Methods in Enzymology 02/2001; 333:73-87. · 2.00 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In vitro experiments and limited animal studies suggest that aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may inhibit pancreatic carcinogenesis. Because few studies have examined the association between aspirin use and pancreatic cancer in humans and the results have been inconsistent, we examined the relationship between aspirin use and the development of pancreatic cancer in the Nurses' Health Study. Among 88 378 women without cancer at baseline, we documented 161 cases of pancreatic cancer during 18 years of follow-up. Aspirin use was first assessed at baseline in 1980 and updated biennially thereafter. All statistical tests were two-sided. Participants were classified according to history of aspirin use. In a multivariable analysis, the risk of pancreatic cancer was not associated with current regular aspirin use (defined as two or more standard tablets per week; relative risk [RR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 1.65), compared with use of fewer than two tablets per week. Increasing duration of regular aspirin use, compared with non-use, was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk: Women who reported more than 20 years of regular aspirin use had an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.43; P(trend) =.01). Among women who reported aspirin use on at least two of three consecutive biennial questionnaires compared with consistent non-users of aspirin, the risk increased with dose (one to three tablets per week: RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.70 to 1.76; four to six tablets per week: RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.70 to 2.40; seven to 13 tablets per week: RR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.76 to 2.61; and > or = 14 tablets per week: RR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.03 to 3.35) (P(trend) =.02). Extended periods of regular aspirin use appear to be associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer among women.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 02/2004; 96(1):22-8. · 14.07 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a crucial pro-angiogenic component in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), and its high expression levels have been correlated with poor prognosis and early postoperative recurrence. We have recently shown that high levels of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) correlate and colocalize with VEGF in invasive PDA and that AngII induces VEGF expression in PDA cell lines. In this study, we explored the signaling mechanisms involved in the AngII-mediated VEGF induction and correlated AT1R and VEGF expression in noninvasive precursor lesions. An AT1R antagonist significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the AngII-mediated induction of VEGF messenger RNA and protein in all PDA cell lines. AngII-VEGF induction was inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, suggesting a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling mechanism. AngII activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not p38 or c-Jun NH2-terminal MAP kinases. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation reduced the AngII-induced VEGF synthesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of precursor lesions showed increased expression of AT1R in most ductal cells undergoing metaplasia. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms showed more intense AT1R staining when compared to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, which showed heterogeneous immunoreactivity. VEGF followed the same distribution pattern of AT1R in both lesions. AT1R expression in the premalignant pancreatic lesions suggests its involvement in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Our mechanistic findings provide the first insight into an AngII-initiated signaling pathway that regulates PDA angiogenesis. An AT1R-mediated VEGF induction suggests the possibility of AT1R blockade as a novel therapeutic strategy to control angiogenesis in PDA.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2008; 12(1):57-66. · 2.36 Impact Factor