Analysis of hereditary and medical risk factors in Achilles tendinopathy and Achilles tendon ruptures: a matched pair analysis.
ABSTRACT In Achilles tendon injuries, it is suggested that a pathological continuum might be evident from the healthy Achilles tendon to Achilles tendinopathy to Achilles tendon rupture. As such, risk factors for both tendinopathy and rupture should be the same.
Hereditary and medical risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy and Achilles tendon rupture are the same to a similar extent in a matched pair analysis.
Matched pair study; level of evidence: 3.
Recreational sportsmen as well as athletes on national level.
566 questionnaires were analysed. 310 subjects were allocated to 3 groups (A, B, C) after matching the pairs for age, weight, height and gender: (A) healthy Achilles tendons (n = 89, age 39 ± 11 years, BMI 25.1 ± 3.9, females 36%), (B) chronic Achilles tendinopathy (n = 161, age 41 ± 11 years, BMI 24.4 ± 3.7, females 34%), (C) acute Achilles tendon rupture (n = 60, age 40 ± 9 years, BMI 25.2 ± 3.2, females 27%).
We found a positive family history of Achilles tendinopathy as a risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy (OR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.1-21.4; p = 0.023), but not for Achilles tendon rupture (OR: 4.0, 95% CI 0.7-21.1, p = 0.118). Smoking and cardiac diseases had a lower incidence in Achilles tendinopathy than in healthy subjects (both p = 0.001), while cardiovascular medication did not change the risk profile.
Identifying risk factors associated with Achilles tendon disorders has a high clinical relevance regarding the development and implementation of prevention strategies and programs. This cross-sectional study identified a positive family history as a significant solitary risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy, increasing the risk fivefold. However, in this matched pair analysis excluding age, weight, height and gender as risk factors no further factor necessarily increases the risk for either Achilles tendinopathy or Achilles tendon rupture.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the seasonal distribution of tendon ruptures in a large cohort of patients from Vancouver, Canada. Retrospective chart review. Acute Achilles tendon rupture cases that occurred from 1987 to 2010 at an academic hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Information was extracted from an orthopaedic database. No direct contact was made with the participants. The following information was extracted from the OrthoTrauma database: age, sex, date of injury and season (winter, spring, summer and autumn), date of surgery if date of injury was unknown and type of injury (sport related or non-sport related/unspecified). Only acute Achilles tendon rupture cases were included; chronic cases were excluded along with those that were conservatively managed. The primary outcome was to determine the seasonal pattern of Achilles tendon rupture. Secondary outcomes, such as differences in gender and mechanism of sport (non-sport vs sport related), were also assessed. There were 543 cases in total; 83% of the cases were men (average age 39.3) and 17% were women (average age 37.3). In total, 76% of cases were specified as sport related. The distribution of injuries varied significantly across seasons (χ(2), p<0.05), with significantly more cases occurring in spring. The increase in the number of cases in spring was due to sport-related injuries, whereas non-sport-related cases were distributed evenly throughout the year. The seasonality of sport-related Achilles tendon ruptures should be considered when developing preventive strategies and when timing their delivery.BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(2):e004320. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative, not an inflammatory, condition. It is prevalent in athletes involved in running sports.A systematic literature review on Achilles tendon tendinopathy has been performed according to the intrinsic (age, sex, body weight, tendon temperature, systemic diseases, muscle strenght, flexibility, previous injuries & anatomical variants, genetic predisposition and blood supply) and extrinsic risk factors (drugs and overuse), which can cause tendon suffering and degeneration. Different theories have been found: Neurogenic, Angiogenic, Impingement and “Iceberg” Hypotheses.Multiple databases were utilized for articles published between 1964 and 2013. The different hypothesis were analyzed, differently considering those concerning the pathogenesis of tendinopathy and those concerning the etiology of complaints in patients. This review of the literature demonstrates the heterogeneity of Achilles tendinopathy pathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified and have shown an interaction between them such as genes, age, circulating and local cytokine production, sex, biomechanics and body composition.Foot and Ankle Surgery. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the human body. The incidence of Achilles tendon ruptures appears to be increasing.Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). 06/2014;