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    ABSTRACT: Free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD) and specific aspects of schizophrenia symptomatology such as cognitive deficits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a critical enzyme in the detoxification of superoxide radicals, was found to be abnormal in TD. While most of previous studies focused on the manganese isoform located in mitochondria, this study investigated the activities of isoform CuZnSOD present in the plasma. We recruited 113 male chronic patients with TD (n = 43) and without TD (n = 70) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, and 84 male control subjects. We examined the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), CuZnSOD activity for both the patient and control groups along with total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in a subset of the cohort. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) were assessed in the patient group. Our results showed lower CuZnSOD activity and TAS levels, but higher MDA levels in patients with TD than those without TD (all p < 0.05). Patients with TD had lower RBANS subscales of Visuospatial/Constructional (p < 0.05) and attention (p < 0.01) than those without TD. Multiple regression analysis showed that in either TD or non-TD group, CuZnSOD was an independent contributor to the attention index of RBANS (both p < 0.05). These results implicated that TD patients suffered greater oxidative stress and cognitive dysfunction than non-TD patients. Oxidative stress could contribute to both TD development and cognitive impairment.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents can mimic some aspects of schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Growing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we focused on inflammatory responses as target of PCP for inducing schizophrenia-like symptoms. 3-month-old C57BL/6J mice received daily injections of PCP (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for one week. PCP-injected mice produced schizophrenia-like behaviours including impaired spatial short-term memory assessed by the Y-maze task and sensorimotor gating deficits in a prepulse inhibition task. Simultaneously, chronic PCP administration induced astrocyte and microglial activation in both the cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β was significantly up-regulated in PCP administrated mice. Furthermore, PCP treatment decreased ratio of the phospho-Ser9 epitope of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) over total GSK3β, which is indicative of increased GSK3β activity. These data demonstrate that chronic PCP in mouse produces inflammatory responses and GSK3β activation.
    Neurochemical Research 10/2014; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating mental condition with onset in young adulthood. The identification of molecular biomarkers that reflect illness pathology is crucial. Recent evidence suggested immune and inflammatory cascades in conjunction with infection may play a role in the pathology. To address this question, we investigated molecular changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from antipsychotic-naïve patients with SZ and at risk mental status for psychosis (ARMS), in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). We measured 90 analytes using a broad multiplex platform focusing on immune and inflammatory cascades then selected 35 with our quality reporting criteria for further analysis. We also examined Toxoplasma gondii (TG) and herpes simplex virus 1 antibody levels in CSF. We report that expression of 15 molecules was significantly altered in the patient groups (SZ and ARMS) compared with HCs. The majority of these molecular changes (alpha-2-macroglobulin [α2M], fibrinogen, interleukin-6 receptor [IL-6R], stem cell factor [SCF], transforming growth factor alpha [TGFα], tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 [TNFR2], IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 2 [MCP-2/CCL8], testosterone [for males], angiotensin converting enzyme [ACE], and epidermal growth factor receptor) were consistent between SZ and ARMS patients, suggesting these may represent trait changes associated with psychotic conditions in general. Interestingly, many of these analytes (α2M, fibrinogen, IL-6R, SCF, TGFα, TNFR2, IL-8, MCP-2/CCL8, and testosterone [for males]) were exacerbated in subjects with ARMS compared with subjects with SZ. Although further studies are needed, we optimistically propose that these molecules may be good candidates for predictive markers for psychosis from an early stage. Lastly, reduction of IL-6R, TGFα, and ACE was correlated with positivity of TG antibody in the CSF, suggesting possible involvement of TG infection in the pathology.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 04/2014; · 8.61 Impact Factor