[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia etiology is thought to involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors during postnatal brain development. However, there is a fundamental gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility to trigger symptom onset and disease progression. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings implicating oxidative stress as one mechanism by which environmental insults, especially early life social stress, impact the development of schizophrenia. Based on a review of the literature and the results of our own animal model, we suggest that environmental stressors such as social isolation render parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVIs) vulnerable to oxidative stress. We previously reported that social isolation stress exacerbates many of the schizophrenia-like phenotypes seen in a conditional genetic mouse model in which NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are selectively ablated in half of cortical and hippocampal interneurons during early postnatal development (Belforte et al., 2010). We have since revealed that this social isolation-induced effect is caused by impairments in the antioxidant defense capacity in the PVIs in which NMDARs are ablated. We propose that this effect is mediated by the down-regulation of PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism and anti-oxidant defense, following the deletion of NMDARs (Jiang et al., 2013). Other potential molecular mechanisms underlying redox dysfunction upon gene and environmental interaction will be discussed, with a focus on the unique properties of PVIs.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:116. · 4.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Use of phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents can mimic some aspects of schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Growing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we focused on inflammatory responses as target of PCP for inducing schizophrenia-like symptoms. 3-month-old C57BL/6J mice received daily injections of PCP (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for one week. PCP-injected mice produced schizophrenia-like behaviours including impaired spatial short-term memory assessed by the Y-maze task and sensorimotor gating deficits in a prepulse inhibition task. Simultaneously, chronic PCP administration induced astrocyte and microglial activation in both the cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β was significantly up-regulated in PCP administrated mice. Furthermore, PCP treatment decreased ratio of the phospho-Ser9 epitope of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) over total GSK3β, which is indicative of increased GSK3β activity. These data demonstrate that chronic PCP in mouse produces inflammatory responses and GSK3β activation.
Neurochemical Research 10/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). The pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 04/2013; 10(1):43. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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