Article

Small RNA in the nucleus: the RNA-chromatin ping-pong.

California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
Current opinion in genetics & development (Impact Factor: 8.99). 02/2012; 22(2):164-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.gde.2012.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Eukaryotes use several classes of small RNA molecules to guide diverse protein machineries to target messenger RNA. The role of small RNA in post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA stability and translation is now well established. Small RNAs can also guide sequence-specific modification of chromatin structure and thus contribute to establishment and maintenance of distinct chromatin domains. In this review we summarize the model for the inter-dependent interaction between small RNA and chromatin that has emerged from studies on fission yeast and plants. We focus on recent results that link a distinct class of small RNAs, the piRNAs, to chromatin regulation in animals.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
189 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PIWI family proteins have recently emerged as essential contributors in numerous biological processes including germ cell development, stem cell maintenance and epigenetic reprogramming. Expression of some of the family members has been shown to be elevated in tumors. In particular, PIWIL2 has been probed as a potential neoplasia biomarker in many cancers in humans. Previously, PIWIL2 was shown to be expressed in most tumours as a set of its shorter isoforms. In this work, we demonstrated the presence of its 60 kDa (PL2L60A) and 80 kDa (PL2L80A) isoforms in testicular cancer cell lines. We also ascertained the transcriptional boundaries of mRNAs and alternative promoter regions for these PIWIL2 isoforms. Further, we probed a range of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) samples and found PIWIL2 to be predominantly expressed as PL2L60A in most of them. Importantly, the levels of both PL2L60A mRNA and protein products were found to vary depending on the differentiation subtype of TGCTs, i.e., PL2L60A expression is significantly higher in undifferentiated seminomas and appears to be substantially decreased in mixed and nonseminomatous TGCTs. The higher level of PL2L60A expression in undifferentiated TGCTs was further validated in the model system of retinoic acid induced differentiation in NT2/D1 cell line. Therefore, both PL2L60A mRNA and protein abundance could serve as an additional marker distinguishing between seminomas and nonseminomatous tumors with different prognosis and therapy approaches.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112528. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are essential for gametogenesis, embryogenesis, and stem cell maintenance in animals. Piwi proteins act on transposon RNAs by cleaving the RNAs and by interacting with factors involved in RNA regulation. Additionally, piRNAs generated from transposons and psuedogenes can be used by Piwi proteins to regulate mRNAs at the posttranscriptional level. Here we discuss piRNA biogenesis, recent findings on posttranscriptional regulation of mRNAs by the piRNA pathway, and the potential importance of this posttranscriptional regulation for a variety of biological processes such as gametogenesis, developmental transitions, and sex determination.
    Molecular Cell 10/2014; 56(1):18–27. · 14.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HSP90, found in all kingdoms of life, is a major chaperone protein regulating many client proteins. We demonstrated that HSP90α, one of two paralogs duplicated in vertebrates, plays an important role in the biogenesis of fetal PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA), which act against the transposon activities, in mouse male germ cells. The knockout mutation of Hsp90α resulted in a large reduction in the expression of primary and secondary piRNAs and mislocalization of MIWI2, a PIWI homolog. Whereas the mutation in Fkbp6 encoding a co-chaperone reduced piRNAs of 28-32 nucleotides in length, the Hsp90α mutation reduced piRNAs of 24-32 nucleotides, suggesting the presence of both FKBP6-dependent and -independent actions of HSP90α. Although DNA methylation and mRNA levels of L1 retrotransposon were largely unchanged in the Hsp90α mutant testes, the L1-encoded protein was increased, suggesting the presence of post-transcriptional regulation. This study revealed the specialized function of the HSP90α isofom in the piRNA biogenesis and repression of retrotransposons during the development of male germ cells in mammals.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
73 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014