Pediatric Ovarian Torsion in a Medical Center in Taiwan: Case Analysis

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan.
Pediatrics & Neonatology (Impact Factor: 0.88). 02/2012; 53(1):55-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2011.11.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints made by patients visiting emergency departments; however, ovarian torsion is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, especially in young children. Early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the ovaries. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients under 18 years of age who visited Changhua Christian Hospital with adnexal torsion between June 2003 and June 2010.
Medical records were reviewed for age, associated symptoms, past and present medical histories, physical findings, diagnostic tests performed, clinical course, pathological findings, and diagnoses.
A total of 21 patients were identified and included in the analysis; their mean (SD) age was 13.62 (3.75) years. Abdominal pain was the universal symptom. Vomiting or nausea was the second most common symptom (33.3%). The average period between symptom onset and diagnosis was 3.29 (6.39) days. Right-side adnexal torsion occurred in 14 patients, and left-side torsion in seven patients. Ovarian cysts, most often dermoid cysts (e.g., teratomas), were found in 16 patients (76%). Except for one conservatively treated case and one malignant case (adult granulose cell tumor), the other results of the pathological examination were as follows: eight dermoid cysts, two cystadenomas, one follicular cyst, and eight simple cysts.
Although it is uncommon, adnexal torsion should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower abdominal pain in all girls, regardless of age. Sonography is helpful for making such a diagnosis. Time is a critical factor, and early laparoscopy or laparotomy may save a viable ovary.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Adnexal torsion (AT) accounts for 2.7% of cases of acute abdominal pain in children. When AT is undiagnosed, ovarian blood supply is compromised, eventually leading to tissue necrosis. Because the clinical presentation of AT is nonspecific, preoperative diagnosis is challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors that differentiate AT from other sources of acute abdominal pain. METHODS: This study was an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of girls age 4-18 y/o with acute abdominal pain who then underwent surgical evaluation. Data collected included age, menarchal status, symptoms, physical exam findings, laboratory tests, imaging studies, operative procedures and postoperative diagnosis. Factors associated with AT were included in a logistic regression model. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve based on this model was then constructed in order to determine its ability to predict AT. RESULTS: 94 patients presented with acute abdominal pain; 45 were diagnosed with AT and 49 with other causes of abdominal pain. Presence of intermittent pain (P < .0217), non-radiating pain (P < .0229) and increased adnexal size (P < .0032) were significantly associated with AT in the final model. The area under the ROC curve was equal to 0.8601, suggesting excellent discrimination between AT and other causes of acute abdominal pain by using these 3 parameters. CONCLUSION: Key clinical and imaging findings can aid in the early diagnosis of AT in children. Future prospective studies will focus on development of a clinical predictive model for the diagnosis of AT in the pediatric population.
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