Formation kinetics and H2O2 distribution in chloroplasts and protoplasts of photosynthetic leaf cells of higher plants under illumination.
ABSTRACT The dye H(2)DCF-DA, which forms the fluorescent molecule DCF in the reaction with hydrogen peroxide, H(2)O(2), was used to study light-induced H(2)O(2) production in isolated intact chloroplasts and in protoplasts of mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis, pea, and maize. A technique to follow the kinetics of light-induced H(2)O(2) production in the photosynthesizing cells using this dye has been developed. Distribution of DCF fluorescence in these cells in the light has been investigated. It was found that for the first minutes of illumination the intensity of DCF fluorescence increases linearly after a small lag both in isolated chloroplasts and in chloroplasts inside protoplast. In protoplasts of Arabidopsis mutant vtc2-2 with disturbed biosynthesis of ascorbate, the rate of increase in DCF fluorescence intensity in chloroplasts was considerably higher than in protoplasts of the wild type plant. Illumination of protoplasts also led to an increase in DCF fluorescence intensity in mitochondria. Intensity of DCF fluorescence in chloroplasts increased much more rapidly than in cytoplasm. The cessation of cytoplasmic movement under illumination lowered the rate of DCF fluorescence intensity increase in chloroplasts and sharply accelerated it in the cytoplasm. It was revealed that in response to switching off the light, the intensity of fluorescence of both DCF and fluorescent dye FDA increases in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of chloroplasts, while it decreases in the chloroplasts; the opposite changes occur in response to switching on the light again. It was established that these phenomena are connected with proton transport from chloroplasts in the light. In the presence of nigericin, which prevents the establishment of transmembrane proton gradients, the level of DCF fluorescence in cytoplasm was higher and increased more rapidly than in the chloroplasts from the very beginning of illumination. These results imply the presence of H(2)O(2) export from chloroplasts to cytoplasm in photosynthesizing cells in the light; the increase in this export falls in the same time interval as does the cessation of cytoplasmic movement.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant present at millimolar concentrations in plants. This small molecule has roles in the reduction of prosthetic metal ions, cell wall expansion, cell division, and in the detoxification of reactive oxygen generated by photosynthesis and adverse environmental conditions. However, unlike in animals, the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) in plants is only beginning to be unraveled. The previously described AsA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc1 (vitamin c-1) was recently shown to have a defect in GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, providing strong evidence for the recently proposed role of GDP-mannose in AsA biosynthesis. To genetically define other AsA biosynthetic loci, we have used a novel AsA assay to isolate four vtc mutants that define three additional VTC loci. We have also isolated a second mutant allele of VTC1. The four loci represented by the vtc mutant collection have been genetically characterized and mapped onto the Arabidopsis genome. The vtc mutants have differing ozone sensitivities. In addition, two of the mutants, vtc2-1 and vtc2-2, have unusually low levels of AsA in the leaf tissue of mature plants.Genetics 03/2000; 154(2):847-56. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leaf metabolism produces H2O2 at high rates, but current concepts suggest that the potent signalling effects of this oxidant require that concentrations be controlled by a battery of antioxidative enzymes. The extent to which H2O2 is allowed to accumulate remains unclear. There is little consensus on leaf H2O2 values in the literature and measured concentrations in unstressed conditions range from 50-5000 nmol g(-1) fresh weight, a difference that probably reflects technical inaccuracies as much as biological variability. This article uses new experimental and literature data to examine some of the difficulties in accurately measuring H2O2 in leaf extracts. Potential problems relate to sensitivity, interference from other redox-active compounds, and H2O2 stability during sample preparation. Particular attention is drawn to the influence of tissue mass/extraction volume in the quantitative estimation of H2O2 contents, and the possibility that this factor could contribute to the variability of literature data.Journal of Experimental Botany 02/2008; 59(2):135-46. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In spinach thylakoids prepared from intact chloroplasts by shocking in the presence of ascorbate to preserve the operation of ascorbate peroxidase, the rate of oxygen uptake with methyl viologen as acceptor decreased in response to the addition of H2O2. Such a decrease was not observed in the presence of KCN or when the thylakoids lost ascorbate peroxidase activity. Illumination of intact chloroplasts in the presence of H2O2 and methyl viologen showed an initial rate of oxygen exchange, which is intermediate between the initial rate of oxygen evolution in the presence of H2O2 alone and steady-state oxygen uptake in the presence of methyl viologen. The data showed that monodehydroascorbate radical generated in ascorbate peroxidase reaction could compete with methyl viologen for electrons supplied by the electron transport chain in both thylakoids and intact chloroplasts. During the illumination of intact chloroplasts the rate of oxygen uptake increased. The presence of nigericin swiftly led to steady-state oxygen uptake, and to a clear-cut 1:1 relationship between the electron transport rate estimated from fluorescence assay and the electron transport rate determined from oxygen uptake, taking the stoichiometry 1 O2:4 e. The increase in oxygen uptake was attributed to the cessation of monodehydroascorbate radical generation brought about by consumption of intrachloroplast ascorbate in the peroxidase reactions, and the effects of nigericin were explained by acceleration of such consumption. The competition between methyl viologen and monodehydroascorbate radical in the intact chloroplasts was estimated under various conditions.Free Radical Research 10/2000; 33(3):217-27. · 3.28 Impact Factor