The SET Domain Protein, Set3p, Promotes the Reliable Execution of Cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2012; 7(2):e31224. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031224
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In response to perturbation of the cell division machinery fission yeast cells activate regulatory networks that ensure the faithful completion of cytokinesis. For instance, when cells are treated with drugs that impede constriction of the actomyosin ring (low doses of Latrunculin A, for example) these networks ensure that cytokinesis is complete before progression into the subsequent mitosis. Here, we identify three previously uncharacterized genes, hif2, set3, and snt1, whose deletion results in hyper-sensitivity to LatA treatment and in increased rates of cytokinesis failure. Interestingly, these genes are orthologous to TBL1X, MLL5, and NCOR2, human genes that encode components of a histone deacetylase complex with a known role in cytokinesis. Through co-immunoprecipitation experiments, localization studies, and phenotypic analysis of gene deletion mutants, we provide evidence for an orthologous complex in fission yeast. Furthermore, in light of the putative role of the complex in chromatin modification, together with our results demonstrating an increase in Set3p levels upon Latrunculin A treatment, global gene expression profiles were generated. While this analysis demonstrated that the expression of cytokinesis genes was not significantly affected in set3Δ backgrounds, it did reveal defects in the ability of the mutant to regulate genes with roles in the cellular response to stress. Taken together, these findings support the existence of a conserved, multi-protein complex with a role in promoting the successful completion of cytokinesis.

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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cells ensure error-free progress through the cell cycle by monitoring (1) the completion of cell cycle events, (2) damage to critical cellular components, or (3) structural changes such as the attachment of kinetochores to the mitotic spindle. In the presence of damage, or in the face of a reduced capacity to complete essential events, cells are capable of delaying the cell cycle so that damage can be repaired, or previous cell cycle phases can proceed to completion. Although such "checkpoints" have been extensively studied in many organisms-and much is understood with respect to the monitoring of DNA replication and DNA damage-little is known with regards to mechanisms that might monitor the completion of cytokinesis. In this review I summarize recent work from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, describing the existence of regulatory modules that aid in ensuring the faithful and reliable execution of cytokinesis. Together, these modules promote the maintenance of a "cytokinesis-competent" state characterized by delayed progression into mitosis and the continuous repair and/or re-establishment of the acto-myosin ring. In this way, fission yeast cells are able to increase the likelihood of successful cell division prior to committing to a subsequent cell cycle. The recent demonstration of conservation between S. pombe components of these modules, and human proteins with defined roles in preventing cell division failure, suggest that the lessons learned in S. pombe may be applicable to other eukaryotes.
    Communicative & integrative biology 05/2012; 5(3):265-71.. DOI:10.4161/cib.19860
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    ABSTRACT: Background In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the SET domain protein, Set3p - together with its interacting partners, Snt1p, and Hif2p - form a complex that aids in preventing cell division failure upon mild cytokinetic stress. Intriguingly, the human orthologs of these proteins (MLL5, NCOR2, and TBL1X) are also important for the faithful completion of cytokinesis in tissue culture cells. Since MLL5, NCOR2, and TBL1X form a complex with the histone deacetylase, HDAC3, we sought to determine if an orthologous counterpart played a regulatory role in fission yeast cytokinesis. Results In this report we identify the hos2 gene as the fission yeast HDAC3 ortholog. We show that Hos2p physically interacts with Set3p, Snt1p, and Hif2p, and that hos2∆ mutants are indeed compromised in their ability to reliably complete cell division in the presence of mild cytokinetic stresses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that over-expression of hos2 causes severe morphological and cytokinetic defects. Lastly, through recombinase mediated cassette exchange, we show that expression of human HDAC3 complements the cytokinetic defects exhibited by hos2∆ cells. Conclusions These data support a model in which Hos2p functions as an essential component of the Set3p-Snt1p-Hif2p complex with respect to the regulation of cytokinesis. The ability of human HDAC3 to complement the cytokinesis defects associated with the deletion of the hos2 gene suggests that further analysis of this system could provide insight into the role of HDAC3 in both the regulation of cell division, as well as other biological processes influenced by HDAC3 deacetylation.
    Cell Division 05/2012; 7(1):13. DOI:10.1186/1747-1028-7-13 · 2.63 Impact Factor

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