Maximal Adjuvant Activity of Nasally Delivered IL-1 Requires Adjuvant-Responsive CD11c+ Cells and Does Not Correlate with Adjuvant-Induced In Vivo Cytokine Production

Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 03/2012; 188(6):2834-46. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1100254
Source: PubMed


IL-1 has been shown to have strong mucosal adjuvant activities, but little is known about its mechanism of action. We vaccinated IL-1R1 bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice to determine whether IL-1R1 expression on stromal cells or hematopoietic cells was sufficient for the maximal adjuvant activity of nasally delivered IL-1α as determined by the acute induction of cytokine responses and induction of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF)-specific adaptive immunity. Cytokine and chemokine responses induced by vaccination with IL-1α were predominantly derived from the stromal cell compartment and included G-CSF, IL-6, IL-13, MCP-1, and keratinocyte chemoattractant. Nasal vaccination of Il1r1(-/-) (knock-out [KO]) mice given wild-type (WT) BM (WT→KO) and WT→WT mice with LF + IL-1α induced maximal adaptive immune responses, whereas vaccination of WT mice given Il1r1(-/-) BM (KO→WT) resulted in significantly decreased production of LF-specific serum IgG, IgG subclasses, lethal toxin-neutralizing Abs, and mucosal IgA compared with WT→KO and WT→WT mice (p < 0.05). IL-1α adjuvant activity was not dependent on mast cells. However, the ability of IL-1α to induce serum LF-specific IgG2c and lethal toxin-neutralizing Abs was significantly impaired in CD11c-Myd88(-/-) mice when compared with WT mice (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that CD11c(+) cells must be directly activated by nasally administered IL-1α for maximal adjuvant activity and that, although stromal cells are required for maximal adjuvant-induced cytokine production, the adjuvant-induced stromal cell cytokine responses are not required for effective induction of adaptive immunity.

Download full-text


Available from: Baidong Hou, Oct 12, 2015
1 Follower
29 Reads
  • Source
    • "Ag-specific serum IgG, vaginal IgG and IgA, systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity, and lymphocyte proliferative responses were significantly elevated with co-administration of antigens and IL-1α or IL-1β. Nasal administration of IL-1α induced potent both systemic and mucosal innate immune responses in mice, dependent on IL-1R1 expression of stromal cells (Thompson et al., 2012). Moreover, the induction of adaptive immunity by IL-1α is dependent on the CD11c + cells. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent infectious or immune related diseases, which has made remarkable contribution in human history. Recently increasing attentions have been paid to mucosal vaccination due to its multiple advantages over conventional ways. Subunit or peptide antigens are more reasonable immunogens for mucosal vaccination than live or attenuated pathogens, however adjuvants are required to augment the immune responses. Many mucosal adjuvants have been developed to prime desirable immune responses to different etiologies. Compared with pathogen derived adjuvants, innate endogenous molecules incorporated into mucosal vaccines demonstrate prominent adjuvanticity and safety. Nowadays, cytokines are broadly used as mucosal adjuvants for participation of signal transduction of immune responses, activation of innate immunity and polarization of adaptive immunity. Desired immune responses are promptly and efficaciously primed on basis of specific interactions between cytokines and corresponding receptors. In addition, some other innate molecules are also identified as potent mucosal adjuvants. This review focuses on innate endogenous mucosal adjuvants, hoping to shed light on the development of mucosal vaccines.
    12/2014; 6(3). DOI:10.1007/s13238-014-0125-1
  • Source
    • "In Group 6 pigs, high levels of cross-reactive VN titers were detected against a challenged PRRSV MN184 strain, another heterologous type II viral strain, and most importantly-even against a highly variant heterogenotypic strain (PRRSV SD03-15), confirming the broadly cross-protective nature of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation. Further, PRRSV antibody avidity results were positively correlated with VN titers, in agreement with a previous report.31 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 03/2014; 9(1):1519-35. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S59924 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The binding strength of heterogeneous polyclonal antibodies to cognate antigens is defined as avidity.38 At PCs day 0 and 6, there were no differences in avidity of IgG in plasma among all the tested groups (Figure 4A, B, E and F). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1-Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-γ(+) lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9(1):679-94. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S56127 · 4.38 Impact Factor
Show more