Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein Mediates Nuclear-to-Plasma Membrane Communication Role in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 2 Signaling
ABSTRACT Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) are both regulated by changes in cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) state and localize to the nucleus basally in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Previously we showed a novel mechanism for PARP1 inhibition-mediated HUVEC survival through activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling in response to stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, we showed TXNIP translocation to the plasma membrane (PM) and activation of VEGFR2 in response to physiological stimuli. Because TXNIP is an α-arrestin that regulates VEGFR2 signaling, we hypothesized that PARP1 regulates TXNIP localization and function that might affect HUVEC stress-induced apoptosis.
HUVEC treated with 10 μmol/L PARP1 inhibitor (PJ34) were protected from TNF (10 ng/mL) or H(2)O(2) (300 μmol/L) mediated cell death. HUVEC transfected with TXNIP siRNA lost the protective effect of PARP1 inhibition, suggesting a protective role for TXNIP. Using immunofluorescence, cell fractionation analysis, and plasma membrane sheet assay, TXNIP was shown to translocate to the plasma membrane after PARP1 inhibition. TXNIP translocation was associated with activation of VEGFR2 signaling. Functionally, TXNIP-PARP1 interaction was decreased on PJ34 treatment, suggesting PARP1 as a novel regulator of TXNIP localization and function.
These findings demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism of TXNIP by PARP1 to mediate activation of plasma membrane signaling and cell survival.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The thioredoxin (Trx) system is one of the central antioxidant systems in mammalian cells, maintaining a reducing environment by catalyzing electron flux from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate through Trx reductase to Trx, which reduces its target proteins using highly conserved thiol groups. While the importance of protecting cells from the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species is clear, decades of research in this field revealed that there is a network of redox-sensitive proteins forming redox-dependent signaling pathways that are crucial for fundamental cellular processes, including metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Trx participates in signaling pathways interacting with different proteins to control their dynamic regulation of structure and function. In this review, we focus on Trx target proteins that are involved in redox-dependent signaling pathways. Specifically, Trx-dependent reductive enzymes that participate in classical redox reactions and redox-sensitive signaling molecules are discussed in greater detail. The latter are extensively discussed, as ongoing research unveils more and more details about the complex signaling networks of Trx-sensitive signaling molecules such as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, Trx interacting protein, and phosphatase and tensin homolog, thus highlighting the potential direct and indirect impact of their redox-dependent interaction with Trx. Overall, the findings that are described here illustrate the importance and complexity of Trx-dependent, redox-sensitive signaling in the cell. Our increasing understanding of the components and mechanisms of these signaling pathways could lead to the identification of new potential targets for the treatment of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 05/2012; 18(10). DOI:10.1089/ars.2011.4322 · 7.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Protein kinase C (PKC) ζ is a key pathological mediator of endothelial cell apoptosis. p62 is a scaffold protein that regulates several cell signaling pathways by binding to target proteins. Because PKCζ and p62 contain Phox/Bem1p (PB1) modules that mediate protein-protein interactions, we hypothesized that an interaction between p62 and PKCζ is required for tumor necrosis factor α-induced PKCζ signaling in endothelial cells. Methods and results: In human umbilical vein endothelial cell, tumor necrosis factor α (10 ng/mL) enhanced the interaction between p62 and PKCζ. Transfection with p62 small interfering RNA reduced the activation of both PKCζ and its downstream targets JNK and caspase 3, suggesting that p62 is necessary for PKCζ signaling. Overexpression of only the PB1 domain of p62 inhibited p62-PKCζ interaction, showing that binding of these 2 proteins is mediated by their PB1 domains. Furthermore, overexpression of the p62 PB1 domain suppressed tumor necrosis factor α-induced PKCζ activation and subsequent activation of JNK and caspase 3. Finally, transfection of either p62 small interfering RNA or the PB1 domain of p62 inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Our results suggest a novel function of p62 that regulates the activity of PKCζ by binding to PKCζ, thereby activating the PKCζ-JNK-caspase 3 apoptotic pathway in endothelial cells.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2012; 32(12). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300054 · 6.00 Impact Factor
- Frontiers in Physiology 03/2013; 4:50. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00050 · 3.53 Impact Factor