Keratin 8 phosphorylation regulates keratin reorganization and migration of epithelial tumor cells.
ABSTRACT Cell migration and invasion are largely dependent on the complex organization of the various cytoskeletal components. Whereas the role of actin filaments and microtubules in cell motility is well established, the role of intermediate filaments in this process is incompletely understood. Organization and structure of the keratin cytoskeleton, which consists of heteropolymers of at least one type 1 and one type 2 intermediate filament, are in part regulated by post-translational modifications. In particular, phosphorylation events influence the properties of the keratin network. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a bioactive lipid with the exceptional ability to change the organization of the keratin cytoskeleton, leading to reorganization of keratin filaments, increased elasticity, and subsequently increased migration of epithelial tumor cells. Here we investigate the signaling pathways that mediate SPC-induced keratin reorganization and the role of keratin phosphorylation in this process. We establish that the MEK-ERK signaling cascade regulates both SPC-induced keratin phosphorylation and reorganization in human pancreatic and gastric cancer cells and identify Ser431 in keratin 8 as the crucial residue whose phosphorylation is required and sufficient to induce keratin reorganization and consequently enhanced migration of human epithelial tumor cells.
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian cell cytoskeleton consists of a diverse group of fibrillar elements that play a pivotal role in mediating a number of digestive and nondigestive cell functions, including secretion, absorption, motility, mechanical integrity, and mitosis. The cytoskeleton of higher-eukaryotic cells consists of three highly abundant major protein families: microfilaments (MF), microtubules (MT), and intermediate filaments (IF), as well as a growing number of associated proteins. Within digestive epithelia, the prototype members of these three protein families are actins, tubulins, and keratins, respectively. This review highlights the important structural, regulatory, functional, and unique features of the three major cytoskeletal protein groups in digestive epithelia. The emerging exciting biological aspects of these protein groups are their involvement in cell signaling via direct or indirect interaction with a growing list of associated proteins (MF, MT, IF), the identification of several disease-causing mutations (IF, MF), the functional role that they play in protection from environmental stresses (IF), and their functional integration via several linker proteins that bridge two or potentially all three of these groups together. The use of agents that target specific cytoskeletal elements as therapeutic modalities for digestive diseases offers potential unique areas of intervention that remain to be fully explored.The American journal of physiology 01/2000; 277(6 Pt 1):G1108-37. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of keratin intermediate filaments (IF) is known to affect their assembly state and organization; however, little is known about the mechanisms regulating keratin phosphorylation. In this study, we demonstrate that shear stress, but not stretch, causes disassembly of keratin IF in lung alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) and that this disassembly is regulated by protein kinase C delta-mediated phosphorylation of keratin 8 (K8) Ser-73. Specifically, in AEC subjected to shear stress, keratin IF are disassembled, as reflected by their increased solubility. In contrast, AEC subjected to stretch showed no changes in the state of assembly of IF. Pretreatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, bisindolymaleimide, prevents the increase in solubility of either K8 or its assembly partner K18 in shear-stressed AEC. Phosphoserine-specific antibodies demonstrate that K8 Ser-73 is phosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in shear-stressed AEC. Furthermore, we showed that shear stress activates PKC delta and that the PKC delta peptide antagonist, delta V1-1, significantly attenuates the shear stress-induced increase in keratin phosphorylation and solubility. These data suggested that shear stress mediates the phosphorylation of serine residues in K8, leading to the disassembly of IF in alveolar epithelial cells. Importantly, these data provided clues regarding a molecular link between mechanically induced signal transduction and alterations in cytoskeletal IF.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2005; 280(34):30400-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cytokeratin filament network is intrinsically dynamic, continuously exchanging subunits over its entire surface, while conferring structural stability on epithelial cells. However, it is not known how cytokeratin filaments are remodeled in situations where the network is temporarily and spatially restricted. Using the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate we observed rapid and reversible restructuring in living cells, which may provide the basis for such dynamics. By examining cells stably expressing fluorescent cytokeratin chimeras, we found that cytokeratin filaments were broken down and then formed into granular aggregates within a few minutes of orthovanadate addition. After drug removal, gradual reincorporation of granules into the filament network was observed for aggregates that were either part of residual filaments or stayed in close apposition to remaining filaments. Even when cytokeratin filaments were no longer detectable, granules with low mobility were still able to reestablish a cytokeratin filament network. This process took less than 30 minutes and occurred at multiple foci throughout the cytoplasm without apparent correlation to alterations in the actin- and tubulin-based systems. Interestingly, the short-lived and rather small orthovanadate-induced cytokeratin granules contained the cytoskeletal crosslinker plectin but lacked the cytokeratin-solubilising 14-3-3 proteins. By contrast, the long-lived and larger cytokeratin aggregates generated after treatment with the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid were negative for plectin but positive for 14-3-3 proteins. Taken together, our observations in living orthovanadate-treated interphase cells revealed modes of cytokeratin remodeling that qualify as basic mechanisms capable of rapidly adapting the cytokeratin filament cytoskeleton to specific requirements.Journal of Cell Science 12/2002; 115(Pt 21):4133-48. · 5.88 Impact Factor