Relationship between cartilage and subchondral bone lesions in repetitive impact trauma-induced equine osteoarthritis
ABSTRACT To correlate degenerative changes in cartilage and subchondral bone in the third carpal bone (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally occurring repetitive trauma-induced osteoarthritis.
Fifteen C3, collected from Standardbred horses postmortem, were assessed for cartilage lesions by visual inspection and divided into Control (CO), Early Osteoarthritis (EOA) and Advanced Osteoarthritis (AOA) groups. Two osteochondral cores were harvested from corresponding dorsal sites on each bone and scanned with a micro-computed tomography (CT) instrument. 2D images were assembled into 3D reconstructions that were used to quantify architectural parameters from selected regions of interest, including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. 2D images, illustrating the most severe lesion per core, were scored for architectural appearance by blinded observers. Thin sections of paraffin-embedded decalcified cores stained with Safranin O-Fast Green, matched to the micro-CT images, were scored using a modified Mankin scoring system.
Subchondral bone pits with deep focal areas of porosity were seen more frequently in AOA than EOA but never in CO. Articular cartilage damage was seen in association with a reduction in bone mineral and loss of bone tissue. Histological analyses revealed significant numbers of microcracks in the calcified cartilage of EOA and AOA groups and a progressive increase in the score compared with CO bones.
The data reveal corresponding, progressive degenerative changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone, including striking focal resorptive lesions, in the third carpal bone of racehorses subjected to repetitive, high impact trauma.
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- "In a series of in vitro studies of bovine cartilage, Broom and his colleagues have shown that the mode of fracture of HAC and ACC under high loading rates is influenced by previous static creep loading (Thambyah et al. 2012). Lacourt et al. (2012) used both microtomography and decalcified section to quantify cracks in the equine third carpal bone as a natural model of repetitive injuryinduced arthritis. X-ray microtomography was introduced to the bone field by Elliott & Dover (1982, 1984). "
ABSTRACT: High density mineralised protrusions (HDMP) from the tidemark mineralising front into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC) were first described in Thoroughbred racehorse fetlock joints and later in Icelandic horse hock joints. We now report them in human material. Whole femoral heads removed at operation for joint replacement or from dissection room cadavers were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual echo steady state at 0.23 mm resolution, then 26-μm resolution high contrast X-ray microtomography, sectioned and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, blocks cut and polished and re-imaged with 6-μm resolution X-ray microtomography. Tissue mineralisation density was imaged using backscattered electron SEM (BSE SEM) at 20 kV with uncoated samples. HAC histology was studied by BSE SEM after staining block faces with ammonium triiodide solution. HDMP arise via the extrusion of an unknown mineralisable matrix into clefts in HAC, a process of acellular dystrophic calcification. Their formation may be an extension of a crack self-healing mechanism found in bone and articular calcified cartilage. Mineral concentration exceeds that of articular calcified cartilage and is not uniform. It is probable that they have not been reported previously because they are removed by decalcification with standard protocols. Mineral phase morphology frequently shows the agglomeration of many fine particles into larger concretions. HDMP are surrounded by HAC, are brittle, and show fault lines within them. Dense fragments found within damaged HAC could make a significant contribution to joint destruction. At least larger HDMP can be detected with the best MRI imaging ex vivo.Journal of Anatomy 10/2014; 225(4):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1111/joa.12226 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review primarily focuses on how the macromolecular composition and architecture of articular cartilage and its unique biomechanical properties play a pivotal role in the ability of articular cartilage to withstand mechanical loads several magnitudes higher than the weight of the individual. Current findings on short-term and long-term effects of exercise on human articular cartilage are reviewed, and the importance of appropriate exercises for individuals with normal and diseased or aberrated cartilage is discussed.Orthopedic Clinics of North America 04/2012; 43(2):187-99, v. DOI:10.1016/j.ocl.2012.03.001 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the association of prevalent cartilage damage and cartilage loss over time with incident bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the same subregion of the tibiofemoral compartments as detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is an observational study of individuals with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects whose baseline and 30-month follow-up MRIs were read for findings of OA were included. MRI was performed with a 1.0 T extremity system. Tibiofemoral compartments were divided into 10 subregions. Cartilage morphology was scored from 0 to 6 and BMLs were scored from 0 to 3. Prevalent cartilage damage and cartilage loss over time were considered predictors of incident BMLs. Associations were assessed using logistic regression, with adjustments for potential confounders. Results Medially, incident BMLs were associated with baseline cartilage damage (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 5.1]), incident cartilage loss (7.3 [95% CI 5.0, 10.7]) and progression of cartilage loss (7.6 [95% CI 5.1, 11.3]) Laterally, incident BMLs were associated with baseline cartilage damage (4.1 [95% CI 2.6, 6.3]), incident cartilage loss (6.0 [95% CI 3.1, 11.8]), and progression of cartilage loss (11.9 [95% CI 6.2, 23.0]). Conclusion Prevalent cartilage damage and cartilage loss over time are strongly associated with incident BMLs in the same subregion, supporting the significance of the close interrelation of the osteochondral unit in the progression of knee OA.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 02/2013; 21(2):306–313. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2012.11.005 · 4.66 Impact Factor