Standardizing immunophenotyping for the Human Immunology Project

Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Nature Reviews Immunology (Impact Factor: 34.99). 05/2012; 12(3):191-200. DOI: 10.1038/nri3158
Source: PubMed


The heterogeneity in the healthy human immune system, and the immunological changes that portend various diseases, have been only partially described. Their comprehensive elucidation has been termed the 'Human Immunology Project'. The accurate measurement of variations in the human immune system requires precise and standardized assays to distinguish true biological changes from technical artefacts. Thus, to be successful, the Human Immunology Project will require standardized assays for immunophenotyping humans in health and disease. A major tool in this effort is flow cytometry, which remains highly variable with regard to sample handling, reagents, instrument setup and data analysis. In this Review, we outline the current state of standardization of flow cytometry assays and summarize the steps that are required to enable the Human Immunology Project.

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    • "GMP marker CD45RA [40] [42] was present in a proportion of 21.0% AE 3.6%. Overall, effector granulocyte and monocyte markers such as CD14 [43] and CD33 [44], which is also expressed on CMP [45] [46], were detected on less than 10% of the cells. Also, 3% to 5% of the cells were positive for CD235a (erythrocyte marker) and CD41a (megakaryocyte marker). "
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    Cytotherapy 07/2015; 17(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jcyt.2015.05.006 · 3.29 Impact Factor
    • ". Identification of B cell subsets suggested by Standardizing immunophenotyping for the Human Immunology Project (Adapted from Maecker et al [40]). peritubular capillaries and circulating antibodies suggested that B cells may have had an antibody-independent function, such as antigen presentation [45]. "
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    • "The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of circulating monocyte subsets in patients with Q fever endocarditis using flow cytometry, a tool of choice for probing human immune phenotypes and for characterizing subsets of cells, including rare circulating subsets [19]. We demonstrated that the major subset of monocytes (classical monocytes) was not affected in Q fever endocarditis. "
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