A coding variant in CR1 interacts with APOE-ε4 to influence cognitive decline

Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.68). 03/2012; 21(10):2377-88. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/dds054
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Complement receptor 1 (CR1) is an Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility locus that also influences AD-related traits such as episodic memory decline and neuritic amyloid plaque deposition. We implemented a functional fine-mapping approach, leveraging intermediate phenotypes to identify functional variant(s) within the CR1 locus. Using 1709 subjects (697 deceased) from the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, we tested 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the linkage disequilibrium block containing the published CR1 AD SNP (rs6656401) for associations with episodic memory decline, and then examined the functional consequences of the top result. We report that a coding variant in the LHR-D (long homologous repeat D) region of the CR1 gene, rs4844609 (Ser1610Thr, minor allele frequency = 0.02), is associated with episodic memory decline and accounts for the known effect of the index SNP rs6656401 (D' = 1, r(2)= 0.084) on this trait. Further, we demonstrate that the coding variant's effect is largely dependent on an interaction with APOE-ε4 and mediated by an increased burden of AD-related neuropathology. Finally, in our data, this coding variant is also associated with AD susceptibility (joint odds ratio = 1.4). Taken together, our analyses identify a CR1 coding variant that influences episodic memory decline; it is a variant known to alter the conformation of CR1 and points to LHR-D as the functional domain within the CR1 protein that mediates the effect on memory decline. We thus implicate C1q and MBL, which bind to LHR-D, as likely targets of the variant's effect and suggest that CR1 may be an important intermediate in the clearance of Aβ42 particles by C1q.

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Available from: Amanda J Myers, Aug 17, 2015
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    • "Two studies integrated multi-modal data including imaging , genetics and/or cognitive data to improve the classification accuracy (Yu et al. 2012), as well as the prediction accuracy, of neuropsychological performance (Wang et al. 2012b). One study identified a significant association of one coding variant in CR1 gene with episodic memory decline (Keenan et al. 2012). SNPs previously associated with AD, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and MRI-identified infarcts were also investigated (Mukherjee et al. 2012b). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Genetics Core of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), formally established in 2009, aims to provide resources and facilitate research related to genetic predictors of multidimensional Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related phenotypes. Here, we provide a systematic review of genetic studies published between 2009 and 2012 where either ADNI APOE genotype or genome-wide association study (GWAS) data were used. We review and synthesize ADNI genetic associations with disease status or quantitative disease endophenotypes including structural and functional neuroimaging, fluid biomarker assays, and cognitive performance. We also discuss the diverse analytical strategies used in these studies, including univariate and multivariate analysis, meta-analysis, pathway analysis, and interaction and network analysis. Finally, we perform pathway and network enrichment analyses of these ADNI genetic associations to highlight key mechanisms that may drive disease onset and trajectory. Major ADNI findings included all the top 10 AD genes and several of these (e.g., APOE, BIN1, CLU, CR1, and PICALM) were corroborated by ADNI imaging, fluid and cognitive phenotypes. ADNI imaging genetics studies discovered novel findings (e.g., FRMD6) that were later replicated on different data sets. Several other genes (e.g., APOC1, FTO, GRIN2B, MAGI2, and TOMM40) were associated with multiple ADNI phenotypes, warranting further investigation on other data sets. The broad availability and wide scope of ADNI genetic and phenotypic data has advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of AD and has nominated novel targets for future studies employing next-generation sequencing and convergent multi-omics approaches, and for clinical drug and biomarker development. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9262-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 10/2013; 8(2). DOI:10.1007/s11682-013-9262-z · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    • "This coding variant was associated with AD susceptibility, a composite score of episodic memory decline, and increased neuritic pathology in a study cohort primarily consisting of non-Hispanic Caucasian individuals. Moreover , their results suggested that this rare variant could account for the effect of the index GWA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6656401 on episodic memory decline (Keenan et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: We previously described an intragenic functional copy number variation (CNV) in complement receptor 1 (CR1) that is associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. A recent study, however, reported a rare CR1 coding variant p.Ser1610Thr (rs4844609) associated with AD susceptibility, explaining the effect of genome wide association (GWA) top single nucleotide polymorphism rs6656401. We assessed the role of the Ser1610Thr variant in AD pathogenesis and the effect on AD-related endophenotypes in a Flanders-Belgian cohort. We evaluated whether this rare variant rather than the CR1 CNV could explain the association of CR1 in our population. The Ser1610Thr variant was not associated with AD, memory impairment, total tau, amyloid β1-42 or tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 levels. It did not explain (part of) the association of genome wide association top single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs3818361/rs6656401, nor of the CR1 CNV, with AD in our cohort, whereas the CR1 CNV and rs3818361/rs6656401 represented the same association signal. These findings question a role for the Ser1610Thr variant in AD risk and related endophenotypes, and reaffirm our previous observation that the CR1 CNV could be the true functional risk factor explaining the association between CR1 and AD.
    Neurobiology of aging 04/2013; 34(9). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.03.008 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The initial study, ADNI-1, enrolled 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 with early AD, and 200 cognitively normal elderly controls. ADNI-1 was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and by a competitive renewal, ADNI-2, which enrolled an additional 550 participants and will run until 2015. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results to the end of 2013. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are largely consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimer's Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151-3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers select and combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, amyloid PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of blood biomarkers for AD as potentially noninvasive and low-cost alternatives to CSF biomarkers for AD diagnosis and the assessment of α-syn as an additional biomarker; (5) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; (6) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most likely to undergo imminent future clinical decline and the use of more sensitive outcome measures to reduce sample sizes. Multimodal methods incorporating APOE status and longitudinal MRI proved most highly predictive of future decline. Refinements of clinical tests used as outcome measures such as clinical dementia rating-sum of boxes further reduced sample sizes; (7) the pioneering of genome-wide association studies that leverage quantitative imaging and biomarker phenotypes, including longitudinal data, to confirm recently identified loci, CR1, CLU, and PICALM and to identify novel AD risk loci; (8) worldwide impact through the establishment of ADNI-like programs in Japan, Australia, Argentina, Taiwan, China, Korea, Europe, and Italy; (9) understanding the biology and pathobiology of normal aging, MCI, and AD through integration of ADNI biomarker and clinical data to stimulate research that will resolve controversies about competing hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of AD, thereby advancing efforts to find disease-modifying drugs for AD; and (10) the establishment of infrastructure to allow sharing of all raw and processed data without embargo to interested scientific investigators throughout the world. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 10/2011; 8(1 Suppl):S1-68. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.09.172 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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