Unrelated Donor Cord Blood Transplantation for Children with Severe Sickle Cell Disease: Results of One Cohort from the Phase II Study from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN)
ABSTRACT The Sickle Cell Unrelated Donor Transplant Trial (SCURT trial) of the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) is a phase II study of the toxicity and efficacy of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Here we report the results for the cord blood cohort of this trial. Eight children with severe SCD underwent unrelated donor cord blood transplantation (CBT) following alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Cyclosporine or tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were administered for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Donor/recipient HLA match status was 6 of 6 (n = 1) or 5 of 6 (n = 7), based on low/intermediate-resolution molecular typing at HLA -A, -B, and high-resolution typing at -DRB1. Median recipient age was 13.7 years (range: 7.4-16.2 years), and median weight was 35.0 kg (range: 25.2-90.2 kg). The median pre-cryopreservation total nucleated cell dose was 6.4 × 10(7) /kg (range: 3.1-7.6), and the median postthaw infused CD34 cell dose was 1.5 × 10(5) /kg (range: 0.2-2.3). All patients achieved neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count >500/mm(3)) by day 33 (median: 22 days). Three patients who engrafted had 100% donor cells by day 100, which was sustained, and 5 patients had autologous hematopoietic recovery. Six of 8 patients had a platelet recovery to >50,000/mm(3) by day 100. Two patients developed grade II acute GVHD. Of these, 1 developed extensive chronic GVHD and died of respiratory failure 14 months posttransplantation. With a median follow-up of 1.8 years (range: 1-2.6), 7 patients are alive with a 1-year survival of 100%, and 3 of 8 are alive without graft failure or disease recurrence. Based upon the high incidence of graft rejection after unrelated donor CBT, enrollment onto the cord blood arm of the SCURT trial was suspended. However, because this reduced-intensity regimen has demonstrated a favorable safety profile, this trial remains open to enrollment for unrelated marrow donor transplants. Novel approaches aimed at improving engraftment will be needed before unrelated CBT can be widely adopted for transplanting patients with severe SCD.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, umbilical cord blood (CB), a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), has been used successfully as an alternative HSC source to treat a variety of hematologic, immunologic, genetic, and oncologic disorders. CB has several advantages, including prompt availability of the transplant, decrease of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and better long-term immune recovery, resulting in a similar long-term survival. Studies have shown that some degree of HLA mismatches is acceptable. This review is intended to outline the main aspects of HLA matching in different settings (related, pediatric, adult, or double-unit HSCT), its effect on transplantation outcome and the role of HLA in donor selection.10/2012; 2012:485160. DOI:10.1155/2012/485160
- Blood 11/2012; 120(22):4276-7. DOI:10.1182/blood-2012-09-455832 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of umbilical cord blood (CB) as a source of hematopoietic progenitor cells for patients with high-risk hematologic disorders receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) has increased significantly. Single-institution and registry studies have shown a decreased relapse rate and an increased transplantation-related mortality rate with similar overall survival rates after allogeneic HCT with CB compared with other donor sources. The transplantation of double CB units has overcome the dose limitation inherent in a single CB unit and thus has markedly extended the use of CB to larger children and adults. Similarly, the use of reduced intensity conditioning in the CB transplantation setting has allowed the treatment of older patients who would be unable to tolerate the myeloablative regimens used in the original CB transplantation protocols.Hematology 12/2012; 2012:215-22. DOI:10.1182/asheducation-2012.1.215 · 2.86 Impact Factor