Comparison of spinal deformity surgery in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) versus controls.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
Spine (Impact Factor: 2.45). 02/2012; 37(16):E978-84. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31824edf42
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A retrospective review.
To quantify the exact impact of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) on operative complications and additional surgeries associated with spinal deformity surgery.
There are many references supporting diabetes mellitus (DM) as one of the major risk factors for perioperative complications in spinal surgery. However, the results vary depending on the type of DM, suggesting that insulin-dependent DM causes more complications than NIDDM, which is far more prevalent in the adult population with spinal deformity.
Among 5119 adult patients (older than 40 yr) with deformities, 23 patients with NIDDM and 23 control (group C) patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up were selected. Both groups were matched for age at surgery, sex, body mass index, number of comorbidities, smoking history, current and prior fusion levels, estimated blood loss, and the amount of transfusion. Pre- and final Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) scores and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), number of perioperative complications, and additional surgeries were compared. Within the group with NIDDM, patients with (+) or without (-) complications were compared in terms of postoperative glucose control.
There were no significant differences in the number of major or minor complications or additional surgeries between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative glucose control with the NIDDM group (+) and (-). Group C reported significantly improved scores at final follow-up in all SRS domains and ODI. The group with NIDDM reported improvement in all domains except for the mental health and pain domains. However, there were no significant differences between the group with NIDDM and group C in terms of SRS and ODI scores preoperatively and postoperatively.
Contrary to traditional thinking, properly selected NIDDM was not a significant risk factor for perioperative complications or additional surgeries in adult patients with spinal deformities.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retrospective case-control series. The purpose of this study is to determine whether perioperative complications alter subsequent clinical outcome measures in adult spinal deformity surgery. Increasingly, the benefit of surgical intervention is being evaluated based on patient reported outcomes and standardized health related quality of life (HRQOL) measures. As improvement or deterioration in HRQOL scores becomes a standard for clinical evaluation in adult spinal deformity, the correlation between HRQOL outcome scores and historic benchmarks, such as curve correction, sagittal balance, fusion healing, or the occurrence of a complication, must be clarified. This study analyzes a prospective multicenter data base for adult spinal deformity. Patients with major, minor, and no complications were matched using a logistic regression technique producing 46 patients in each group. Standardized outcome measures at baseline and at 1 year postop were compared. Forty-seven major complications were reported in 46 patients. Sixty-two minor complications were noted in 46 patients. Comparison between the 3 complication groups revealed that 1-year postoperative outcome measures were not statistically different for the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument, Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (SF-12), Oswestry Disability Index, or Numerical Pain Scales. The only significant interaction was in the rate of change from preop to 1-year postop for the SF-12 general health subscale. For the group with major complications, SF-12 general health deteriorated by 2.1 points from preop to 1-year postop. During the same period, the group with minor complications experienced an improvement of 4.2 points and the group with no complications experienced an improvement of 1.5 points. This study suggests that risk for minor complications may be a less substantial obstacle than previously assumed for surgical treatment in adult spinal deformity. In contrast, major complications were reported in approximately 10% of cases and adversely affected outcome as evidenced by the deterioration in SF-12 general health scores at 1 year after surgery.
    Spine 12/2007; 32(24):2764-70. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31815a7644 · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many patients undergoing elective thoracic or lumbar fusion procedures are obese, but the contribution of obesity to complications in spine surgery has not been defined. The authors retrospectively assessed the prevalence of obesity in a cohort of patients undergoing thoracic and lumbar fusion and correlate the presence of obesity with the incidence of operative complications. A retrospective review of consecutive patients treated by a single surgeon (J.K.R.) over a 36-month period at either Rush University Medical Center or the Neurological and Orthopedic Institute of Chicago was performed. The authors identified 332 elective thoracic and lumbar spine surgery cases; the cohort was restricted to include only patients with symptomatic degenerative conditions in need of an anterior, posterior, or combined anterior-posterior fusion. Cases of trauma, tumor, and infection and any case in which the procedure was performed for emergency indications were excluded. A total of 97 cases were identified; of these 86 procedures performed in 84 patients had adequate follow-up material for inclusion in the present study. A broad definition of complications was used. Complications were divided into adverse events (minor) and significant complications (major) based on their impact on patient outcome. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to identify which variables had a significant effect on the risk of complications. Variables considered were body mass index (BMI), height, weight, age, sex, presence or absence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or hypertension, number of levels fused (single compared with multiple), and type of surgery performed. The mean BMI for the cohort was 28.8 (95% confidence interval 24.4-30.3); 60 patients (71.4%) were considered overweight or obese (BMI > or = 25). There were 42 complications in 31 patients (36.9%); this included 19 significant complications in 17 patients (20.2%). Logistic regression revealed that the probability of a significant complication was related to BMI (p < 0.04); the chance of a significant complication was 14% with a BMI of 25, 20% with a BMI of 30, and 36% with a BMI of 40. Positioning-related palsies were only found in extremely obese patients (BMI > or = 40). The probability of minor complication occurrence increased with age (p < 0.02), not BMI. The rate of complications was independent of sex as well as the presence of DM or hypertension. A standard collection of complications occurred, including wound infection (three cases), cerebrospinal fluid leakage (eight cases, one requiring reoperation), deep vein thrombosis (two cases), cardiac events (four cases), symptomatic pseudarthrosis (one case), pneumonia (three cases), prolonged intubation (two cases), urological issues (eight cases), positioning-related palsy (two cases), and neuropathic pain (two cases). Obesity is a prevalent condition in patients undergoing elective fusion for degenerative spinal conditions and may increase the prevalence and incidence of perioperative complications. In their analysis, the authors correlated increasing BMI and increased risk of significant postoperative complications. The correlation of obesity and perioperative complications may assist in the preoperative evaluation and selection of patients for surgery.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Spine 04/2007; 6(4):291-7. DOI:10.3171/spi.2007.6.4.1 · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The complications of surgical treatment for lumbar disc herniation (LDH) are important to know, but hard to measure because of their low incidence and varied pattern. Using data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey, which codes discharges and procedures according to the ICD-9-CM, we assessed acute complication rates for 3,289 surgically treated LDH patients and 4,025 nonoperative LDH patients, identifying complications from codiagnoses. The complication rates were significantly correlated with the postoperative length of stay and with the risk factors of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. We found fewer instances of thrombophlebitis (0.3/1,000) and slightly lower mortality (0.9/1,000) than previously reported. Although the frequency of the cauda equina syndrome in the literature approximates our findings of 5/1,000, our data did not allow correction for the fraction of preexistent cauda equina syndromes. Our any-complication-rate is 3.7%. Even though LDH surgery is relatively safe, its complications should not be overlooked.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders 04/1990; 3(1):30-8. DOI:10.1097/00002517-199003000-00006 · 1.21 Impact Factor