Treatment outcomes of recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited clinics.
ABSTRACT Although used globally, little data exist on the efficacy of nevirapine (NVP) used in combination with tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine or lamivudine (XTC), and no large randomized prospective control trials exists comparing this combination with efavirenz (EFV)/TDF/(XTC).
As part of the AIDSRelief program, a retrospective review of patient medical chart information along with a cross-sectional viral load, and adherence measurement was conducted between 2004 and 2009. An on-treatment analysis excluded patients who died, transferred out of care, or were lost to follow-up. A switch of antiretrovirals for any reason was considered a failure in the intent-to-treat analysis. Patients with only clinically relevant reasons for switching such as toxicity, adverse effects, viral failure or clinical/immunological failure, lost to follow-up, and death were considered failures as part of the modified-intent-to-treat analysis. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables that were associated with viral suppression.
A random sample of 3862 patients met criteria and were included in this analysis. In the on-treatment analysis, older age (P < 0.004) and baseline CD4 <100 cells per cubic millimeter (P < 0.021) were the most significant variables impacting viral load. Patients on TDF/XTC/EFV achieved higher rates of viral suppression compared with patients on TDF/XTC/NVP or azidothymidine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/NVP.
Our data show that patients on TDF/XTC/EFV had better outcomes than patients on TDF/XTC/NVP, AZT/3TC/EFV, or AZT/3TC/NVP. High rates of virologic suppression seen in patients on this regimen are consistent with previous studies and indicate the need to increase use of this regimen in HIV programs to promote sustainable viral suppression over time.
SourceAvailable from: Sandra Wagner Cardoso[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous cohort studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on viral load suppression. We aimed to examine the factors associated with virologic suppression for HIV-infected patients on ART receiving care at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 14(1):322. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-322 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended, but seldom performed, in resource-constrained countries. RV288 is a US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) basic programme evaluation to determine the proportion of patients on treatment who are virologically suppressed and to identify predictors of virological suppression and recovery of CD4 cell count. Analyses from Uganda are presented here.Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (efavirenz or nevirapine + zidovudine/lamivudine) from Kayunga District Hospital and Kagulamira Health Center were randomly selected for a study visit that included determination of viral load (HIV-1 RNA), CD4 cell count and clinical chemistry tests. Subjects were recruited by time on treatment: 6–12, 13–24 or > 24 months. Logistic regression modelling identified predictors of virological suppression. Linear regression modelling identified predictors of CD4 cell count recovery on ART.ResultsWe found that 85.2% of 325 subjects were virologically suppressed (viral load < 47 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml). There was no difference in the proportion of virologically suppressed subjects by time on treatment, yet CD4 counts were higher in each successive stratum. Women had higher median CD4 counts than men overall (406 vs. 294 cells/μL, respectively; P < 0.0001) and in each time-on-treatment stratum. In a multivariate logistic regression model, predictors of virological suppression included efavirenz use [odds ratio (OR) 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–1.02; P = 0.057], lower cost of clinic visits (OR 0.815; 95% CI 0.66–1.00; P = 0.05), improvement in CD4 percentage (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.014–1.107; P = 0.009), and care at Kayunga vs. Kangulamira (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.23–0.92; P = 0.035). In a multivariate linear regression model of covariates associated with CD4 count recovery, time on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P < 0.0001), patient satisfaction with care (P = 0.038), improvements in total lymphocyte count (P < 0.0001) and haemoglobin concentration (P = 0.05) were positively associated, whereas age at start of ART (P = 0.0045) was negatively associated with this outcome.Conclusions High virological suppression rates are achievable on first-line ART in Uganda. The odds of virological suppression were positively associated with efavirenz use and improvements in CD4 cell percentage and total lymphocyte count and negatively associated with the cost of travel to the clinic. CD4 cell reconstitution was positively associated with CD4 count at study visit, time on ART, satisfaction with care at clinic, haemoglobin concentration and total lymphocyte count and negatively associated with age.HIV Medicine 09/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12177 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antiretroviral (ARV) service at Edendale Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa has initiated more than 9,000 adults on therapy since 2004; however, virological outcomes among this patient cohort have not been systematically assessed. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients initiating ARVs in recent years of the antiretroviral roll-out to determine the efficacy of this program. Clinic records were randomly selected for patients who had initiated ARVs between January 2009-December 2012. Demographic and virological data were collected. Virological failure was defined as failure to achieve a plasma viral load (VL)<25 copies/ml after 6-12 months of ARV initiation or >2 consecutive HIV-RNA VLs >400 copies/ml following suppression <25 copies/ml. Records for 228 individuals were reviewed. Twenty-one (9%) of individuals experienced virological failure necessitating a regimen change. Median (interquartile range, IQR) duration of antiretroviral exposure was 19 (11-31) months. Individuals experiencing virological failure did not differ from individuals experiencing success with regards to sex, age, baseline haemoglobin, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase level or weight(p>0.05) except for having lower baseline CD4 (median 74 (IQR 31-94) versus 142 (IQR 61-211) cells/μl; p=0.0036 (Mann-Whitney U-test)). No differences were observed between groups in type of ARV regimen, WHO stage at time of ARV initiation or tuberculosis status. Therefore, using a relatively strict definition of virological failure, we observed that virological success was achievable in over 90% of individuals at the Edendale Hospital ARV clinic. Lower baseline CD4 was associated with greater propensity towards virological failure.AIDS research and human retroviruses 05/2014; DOI:10.1089/AID.2014.0011 · 2.46 Impact Factor