Induction of oxidative stress by selenomethionine in isolated hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
ABSTRACT Fish are exposed to environmental selenium predominantly in the form of dietary selenomethionine (SeMet). The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity of SeMet using isolated hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model experimental system. Cells were exposed to an increasing range of SeMet (0-1000 μM) over 24h, and the time-dependent effects on cell viability, response of enzymatic antioxidants, thiol redox, intracellular calcium balance and caspase-mediated apoptosis were evaluated. SeMet was found to be toxic only at the highest exposure dose (1000 μM), with ∼15% decrease in cell viability. Although modest increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded following SeMet exposure, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione decreased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a gradual progression towards an oxidative intracellular environment. The peroxidation of membrane lipids also increased with increasing SeMet exposure dose. In addition, a rapid increase in intracellular calcium level and the activation of caspase 3/7 enzymes were recorded at the highest exposure dose, indicating that SeMet at a high exposure dose causes cell death probably via apoptosis. Overall, our study demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a key role in the cytotoxicity of SeMet in fish.
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ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are present in a multitude of consumer and medical products; however, the toxicity of AgNPs is not fully understood. This research aimed to elucidate the relationship between AgNPs cytotoxicity and oxidative stress and damage in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes and erythrocytes in comparison to silver ions (Ag(+)). Generally the cytotoxicity of AgNPs and Ag(+) was similar, such that both silver types generated reactive oxygen species, decreased glutathione levels, and decreased activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. Nonetheless, the two silver types had different cellular targets; AgNPs increased lipid peroxidation without apparent uptake into the cells whereas Ag(+) increased DNA damage. Furthermore, the toxicity of both silver types was generally decreased in cells treated with cysteine while treatment with increased the toxicity of both silver types.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 10/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of selenium on concentrations of metabolites and enzyme activities acting as antioxidant markers in liver and kidney of Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baeri. Sturgeons were fed selenium cysteine for 30 and 60d at 1.25, 5, 20mg Sekg(-1). Selenium level in the control feed was 0.32mgkg(-1). Se concentration was measured in liver, kidney and muscle of every specimen. Sturgeon accumulated Se in tissues with a clear dose-response relationship and the highest Se concentration was recorded in liver. This outcome is lined up with the findings obtained on the antioxidant markers evaluated in both tissues, and in which a dose-response for several biomarkers was recorded in liver. The superoxide dismutase activity in Se-treated fish was generally induced, while catalase activity was lower in liver or unaltered in kidney. The concentrations of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and total glutathione responded differently for both tissues and were induced in a different way at both endpoints. No changes of glyoxalase I activity were noted for both Se-treated tissues, while for glyoxalase II enzyme in liver a dose-related pattern was found showing a reversible effect (decreased and increased counteractive response) only in the 5mgkg(-1) group. Moreover, the highest Se concentrations did not cause marked changes in malondialdehyde levels of liver and kidney. The enhancement of glutathione peroxidase activity in Se-treated sturgeon might have prevented the lipid peroxidation in both tissues, providing to the Siberian sturgeon a great defense ability versus the prooxidant effect of selenium.Chemosphere 09/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vaccination against furunculosis on responses of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss muscle, gills, liver, and brain tissues. The oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and carbonyl derivatives of protein oxidative destruction levels), antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase), and total antioxidant capacity in different tissues of rainbow trout were measured. Our data showed that exposure of trout to vaccine against furunculosis produced changes (either increase or decrease) in oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes responses, and these responses showed marked organ differences, associated with tissue patterns. Our study demonstrated that vaccinated trout showed alteration in antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress responses, with higher severity in the liver, compared with other tissues. Our data also suggest that vaccination against furunculosis induced lipid peroxidation in gill and liver tissues. However, muscle and brain tissue are capable of restoring its pro- and antioxidant balance after vaccination.Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 03/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor