5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid. A. Biochemical suicide predictor
The incidence of suicidal acts was studied in 68 depressed patients and related to the level of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid. The distribution of 5-HIAA levels was bimodal. Patients in the low 5-HIAA mode (below 15 ng/ml) attempted suicide significantly more often than those in the high mode, and they used more violent means. Two of the 20 patients in the low mode, and none of the 48 patients in the high mode died from suicide.
Available from: Rafael Tabares-Seisdedos
- "Information on suicidal behaviour was available for the whole sample, N= 397 patients. The method of suicide was dichotomized according to Asberg et al.'s criteria (Asberg et al., 1976) into 'violent' (hanging, jumping from a height, jumping in front of a vehicle, cutting him/herself, setting fire) and 'non-violent' (self-poisoning). "
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ABSTRACT: Suicide is a major cause of premature death in psychosis. Earlier stages have been associated with higher risk. However, such risk periods have not been specifically determined and risk factors for suicidal behaviour may change over those periods, which may have crucial implications for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the highest risk period for suicide in a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Suicidal behaviour prior to first presentation of psychosis and during a 3-year follow-up was examined in a sample of 397 individuals. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour during specific time periods were investigated and compared. The greatest suicide risk was found during the month before and 2 months after first contact with psychiatric services (i.e., 'early' attempts). Severity of depressive symptoms and cannabis use emerged as predominant risk factors across time. 'Early' attempters were characterized as being male, living in urban areas, having poor premorbid adjustment, requiring hospitalization, scoring higher on anxiety measures and unusual thought content than non-attempters. Greater suspiciousness and more severe depressive symptoms distinguished the 'late' attempters. In conclusion, there is a specific high risk period for suicide in FEP around the time of the first presentation. Early intervention programmes targeting phase-specific risk factors, particularly psychotic symptoms management and secondary depression prevention strategies may be useful for suicide prevention in psychosis.
European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.09.008 · 4.37 Impact Factor
Available from: Mauricio P Cunha
- "Abnormalities in the serotonergic system have been pointed as a key factor in depression and other mental illness (Artigas, 2012). Clinical studies have demonstrated lower 5-HT metabolite concentrations in the CSF fluid of depressed patients which were correlated with suicide risk (Asberg et al., 1976). In agreement, most of the currently available antidepressants cause activation of serotonergic neurotransmission (Elhwuegi, 2004; Millan, 2004). "
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ABSTRACT: Atorvastatin is a statin largely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and recently revealed as a neuroprotective agent. The antidepressant-like effect of acute atorvastatin treatment in mice has been previously demonstrated by our laboratory. The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice. Data demonstrate that the serotonin (5-HT) depleting agent p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) completely abolished atorvastatin (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) antidepressant-like effect. Besides atorvastatin, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), a serotonin selective reuptake nhibitor (SSRI) was able to exert an antidepressant-like effect, but any of them changed 5-HT content in hippocampus or frontal cortex. The 5H-T1A (WAY100635, 0.1 mg/kg, s.c) or the 5-HT2A/2C (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg, s.c.) receptor antagonists prevented atorvastatin antidepressant-like effect. In addition, a combinatory antidepressant-like effect was observed when mice received the co-administration of sub-effective doses of atorvastatin (0.01 mg/kg, p.o.) and the SSRI fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, p.o.), paroxetine (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) or sertraline (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Taken together, these results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin depends on the serotonergic system modulation.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 07/2014; 122. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2014.04.005 · 2.78 Impact Factor
- "The majority of them used behavioral indices such as sui - cidal behavior ( Asberg et al . , 1976 ) or violent offences ( Linnoila et al . , 1983 ; Virkkunen et al . , 1994 ) as evidence of the personality trait of impulsivity . It is likely that severe violence toward the self or others is a reflection of impul - sivity in terms of dysregulated planning behavior rather than motor impulsivity that correlated negatively with the ASF "
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ABSTRACT: Intensity-dependent auditory evoked potentials (IDAP) were shown to be increased in highly impulsive individuals. As impulsivity is one of the core symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), patients with ADHD were expected to exhibit an enhanced IDAP. Twenty-five ADHD patients taking methylphenidate and 21 healthy control participants were given diagnostic questionnaires including the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and IDAP was assessed with five-tone intensities. Amplitude, latency, and intensity slope of the N1, P2, and N1/P2 were determined. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant group difference with regard to N1 amplitude and ADHD patients exhibited significantly lower P2 amplitude at high intensity and a flatter N1/P2 slope of the stimulus intensity function than healthy controls. Motor impulsivity, a subscale of the Barratt impulsivity scale, showed a significantly negative correlation with P2 amplitude within the ADHD group. The unexpected results could be due to the effect of methylphenidate.
Journal of Psychophysiology 04/2014; in press.(2). DOI:10.1027/0269-8803/a000111 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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