The incidence of suicidal acts was studied in 68 depressed patients and related to the level of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid. The distribution of 5-HIAA levels was bimodal. Patients in the low 5-HIAA mode (below 15 ng/ml) attempted suicide significantly more often than those in the high mode, and they used more violent means. Two of the 20 patients in the low mode, and none of the 48 patients in the high mode died from suicide.
"Abnormalities in the serotonergic system have been pointed as a key factor in depression and other mental illness (Artigas, 2012). Clinical studies have demonstrated lower 5-HT metabolite concentrations in the CSF fluid of depressed patients which were correlated with suicide risk (Asberg et al., 1976). In agreement, most of the currently available antidepressants cause activation of serotonergic neurotransmission (Elhwuegi, 2004; Millan, 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atorvastatin is a statin largely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and recently revealed as a neuroprotective agent. The antidepressant-like effect of acute atorvastatin treatment in mice has been previously demonstrated by our laboratory. The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice. Data demonstrate that the serotonin (5-HT) depleting agent p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) completely abolished atorvastatin (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) antidepressant-like effect. Besides atorvastatin, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), a serotonin selective reuptake nhibitor (SSRI) was able to exert an antidepressant-like effect, but any of them changed 5-HT content in hippocampus or frontal cortex. The 5H-T1A (WAY100635, 0.1 mg/kg, s.c) or the 5-HT2A/2C (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg, s.c.) receptor antagonists prevented atorvastatin antidepressant-like effect. In addition, a combinatory antidepressant-like effect was observed when mice received the co-administration of sub-effective doses of atorvastatin (0.01 mg/kg, p.o.) and the SSRI fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, p.o.), paroxetine (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) or sertraline (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Taken together, these results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin depends on the serotonergic system modulation.
"The majority of them used behavioral indices such as sui - cidal behavior ( Asberg et al . , 1976 ) or violent offences ( Linnoila et al . , 1983 ; Virkkunen et al . , 1994 ) as evidence of the personality trait of impulsivity . It is likely that severe violence toward the self or others is a reflection of impul - sivity in terms of dysregulated planning behavior rather than motor impulsivity that correlated negatively with the ASF "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensity-dependent auditory evoked potentials (IDAP) were shown to be increased in highly impulsive individuals. As impulsivity is one of the core symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), patients with ADHD were expected to exhibit an enhanced IDAP. Twenty-five ADHD patients taking methylphenidate and 21 healthy control participants were given diagnostic questionnaires including the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and IDAP was assessed with five-tone intensities. Amplitude, latency, and intensity slope of the N1, P2, and N1/P2 were determined. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant group difference with regard to N1 amplitude and ADHD patients exhibited significantly lower P2 amplitude at high intensity and a flatter N1/P2 slope of the stimulus intensity function than healthy controls. Motor impulsivity, a subscale of the Barratt impulsivity scale, showed a significantly negative correlation with P2 amplitude within the ADHD group. The unexpected results could be due to the effect of methylphenidate.
Journal of Psychophysiology 04/2014; in press.(2). DOI:10.1027/0269-8803/a000111 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The mechanisms by which childhood abuse and family history of suicidal behavior (FHS) lead to an increased risk of suicidal behavior are still unknown. Impulsive aggression may play an intermediate role. We investigated whether greater scores for aggression and impulsivity might be associated with the effects of FHS and/or childhood abuse on the severity of suicidal behavior.
We examined the scores of three scales measuring impulsive aggression in a sample of 696 suicide attempters. We compared the highest and lowest scores with regard to reports of childhood abuse and FHS using adjusted multinomial regression models. Genetic polymorphisms of the serotonergic system known to be associated with impulsive aggression were also analyzed.
Patients with high impulsive aggressive scores showed significant differences in sociodemographic, clinical and suicidal features compared with patients with low impulsive aggressive scores. Adjusted results showed that combinations of some types of childhood abuse and FHS, particularly emotional abuse and emotional neglect, are associated with high impulsivity and hostility scores. The SS genotype of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) was associated with high levels of impulsivity when the subjects reported emotional abuse [odds ratio (OR) 5.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-17.5] or physical abuse (OR 5.03, 95% CI 1.50-16.9) in their childhood.
Our results support the role of impulsive aggression as one of the links that may connect childhood abuse and FHS with severity of suicidal behavior.
Psychological Medicine 03/2014; 44(14):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714000646 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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