Base-Resolution Analyses of Sequence and Parent-of-Origin Dependent DNA Methylation in the Mouse Genome

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0653, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 33.12). 02/2012; 148(4):816-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Differential methylation of the two parental genomes in placental mammals is essential for genomic imprinting and embryogenesis. To systematically study this epigenetic process, we have generated a base-resolution, allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) map in the mouse genome. We find parent-of-origin dependent (imprinted) ASM at 1,952 CG dinucleotides. These imprinted CGs form 55 discrete clusters including virtually all known germline differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 23 previously unknown DMRs, with some occurring at microRNA genes. We also identify sequence-dependent ASM at 131,765 CGs. Interestingly, methylation at these sites exhibits a strong dependence on the immediate adjacent bases, allowing us to define a conserved sequence preference for the mammalian DNA methylation machinery. Finally, we report a surprising presence of non-CG methylation in the adult mouse brain, with some showing evidence of imprinting. Our results provide a resource for understanding the mechanisms of imprinting and allele-specific gene expression in mammalian cells.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parental imprinting results in monoallelic parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. However, many imprinted genes identified by differential methylation do not exhibit complete monoallelic expression. Previous studies demonstrated complex tissue-dependent expression patterns for some imprinted genes. Still, the complete magnitude of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. By differentiating human parthenogenetic induced pluripotent stem cells into different cell types and combining DNA methylation with a 5' RNA sequencing methodology, we were able to identify tissue- and isoform-dependent imprinted genes in a genome-wide manner. We demonstrate that nearly half of all imprinted genes express both biallelic and monoallelic isoforms that are controlled by tissue-specific alternative promoters. This study provides a global analysis of tissue-specific imprinting in humans and suggests that alternative promoters are central in the regulation of imprinted genes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 04/2015; 18. DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.023 · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In mammals, X chromosome genes are present in one copy in males and two in females. To balance the dosage of X-linked gene expression between the sexes, one of the X chromosomes in females is silenced. X inactivation is initiated by upregulation of the lncRNA (long non-coding RNA) Xist and recruitment of specific chromatin modifiers. The inactivated X chromosome becomes heterochromatic and visits a specific nuclear compartment adjacent to the nucleolus. Results Here, we show a novel role for the lncRNA Firre in anchoring the inactive mouse X chromosome and preserving one of its main epigenetic features, H3K27me3. Similar to Dxz4, Firre is X-linked and expressed from a macrosatellite repeat locus associated with a cluster of CTCF and cohesin binding sites, and is preferentially located adjacent to the nucleolus. CTCF binding present initially in both male and female mouse embryonic stem cells is lost from the active X during development. Knockdown of Firre disrupts perinucleolar targeting and H3K27me3 levels in mouse fibroblasts, demonstrating a role in maintenance of an important epigenetic feature of the inactive X chromosome. No X-linked gene reactivation is seen after Firre knockdown; however, a compensatory increase in the expression of chromatin modifier genes implicated in X silencing is observed. Further experiments in female embryonic stem cells suggest that Firre does not play a role in X inactivation onset. Conclusions The X-linked lncRNA Firre helps to position the inactive X chromosome near the nucleolus and to preserve one of its main epigenetic features. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0618-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Genome Biology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s13059-015-0618-0 · 10.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background For heterozygous genes, alleles on the chromatin from two different parents exhibit histone modification variations known as allele-specific histone modifications (ASHMs). The regulation of allele-specific gene expression (ASE) by ASHMs has been reported in animals. However, to date, the regulation of ASE by ASHM genes remains poorly understood in higher plants. Results We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the global ASHM profiles of trimethylation on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me3) in two rice F1 hybrids. A total of 522 to 550 allele-specific H3K27me3 genes and 428 to 494 allele-specific H3K36me3 genes were detected in GL × 93-11 and GL × TQ, accounting for 11.09% and 26.13% of the total analyzed genes, respectively. The epialleles between parents were highly related to ASHMs. Further analysis indicated that 52.48% to 70.40% of the epialleles were faithfully inherited by the F1 hybrid and contributed to 33.18% to 46.55% of the ASHM genes. Importantly, 66.67% to 82.69% of monoallelic expression genes contained the H3K36me3 modification. Further studies demonstrated a significant positive correlation of ASE with allele-specific H3K36me3 but not with H3K27me3, indicating that ASHM-H3K36me3 primarily regulates ASE in this study. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that epialleles from parents can be inherited by the F1 to produce ASHMs in the F1 hybrid. Our findings indicate that ASHM-H3K36me3, rather than H3K27me3, mainly regulates ASE in hybrid rice. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1454-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    BMC Genomics 03/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1454-z · 4.04 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014