Diabetes and ischaemic stroke often arise together. People with diabetes have more than double the risk of ischaemic stroke after correction for other risk factors, relative to individuals without diabetes. Multifactorial treatment of risk factors for stroke-in particular, lifestyle factors, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia-will prevent a substantial number of these disabling strokes. Hyperglycaemia occurs in 30-40% of patients with acute ischaemic stroke, also in individuals without a known history of diabetes. Admission hyperglycaemia is associated with poor functional outcome, possibly through aggravation of ischaemic damage by disturbing recanalisation and increasing reperfusion injury. Uncertainty surrounds the question of whether glucose-lowering treatment for early stroke can improve clinical outcome. Achievement of normoglycaemia in the early stage of stroke can be difficult, and the possibility of hypoglycaemia remains a concern. Phase 3 studies of glucose-lowering therapy in acute ischaemic stroke are underway.
"Our data are in accordance with epidemiological studies showing that risk factors for vascular disease, including T2D (Luchsinger et al., 2007), are also risk factors for dementia. People with diabetes have more than double risk of ischemic stroke and prolonged hyperglycaemia is associated with microvascular complications (Luitse et al., 2012). Moreover, cerebrovascular disease increases the severity of the clinical symptoms of AD (Launer et al., 2008; Helzner et al., 2009). "
"T2DM is an established risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular complications throughout the body, including brain stroke and small vessel disease.75 Therefore, vascular damage is likely to be one of the main reasons for the cognitive impairment in T2DM subjects, including VD subjects. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly. T2DM has been thought to be associated with vascular diseases, eventually leading to vascular dementia, but recent studies have established that T2DM is also associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). With the increase in the number of elderly individuals with T2DM, the number of diabetic patients with cognitive dysfunction has been increasing. T2DM may accelerate AD-associated pathologies through insulin resistance. Vascular pathologies may also be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in T2DM subjects. Several other mechanisms also seem to be involved in T2DM-related cognitive dysfunction. More investigations to clarify the association of T2DM with cognitive impairment are warranted. These investigations may help to increase our understanding of AD and open a new door to the development of therapeutics. Recent pharmaceutical advancement in T2DM treatment has resulted in the availability of a wide range of antidiabetics. Some evidence has suggested that antidiabetic therapies help to prevent cognitive dysfunction. At present, however, the optimal level of blood glucose control and the best combination of medications to achieve it in terms of cognitive preservation have not been established. More investigation is warranted. Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging new complication of T2DM that requires further study.
"Type 2 diabetes (T2D) strongly increases the risk of premature and severe stroke and stroke mortality  . Stroke patients with hyperglycemia at hospital admission generally show a poorer prognosis than non-diabetic individuals  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are current drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) based on their main property to enhance endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, thus increasing insulin secretion. However, the mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibition in extra pancreatic tissues has been poorly investigated and it might occur differently from that induced by GLP-1R agonists. Increased adult neurogenesis by GLP-1R agonists has been suggested to play a role in functional recovery in animal models of brain disorders. We recently showed that the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin reduces brain damage after stroke in normal and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether linagliptin impacts stroke-induced neurogenesis. T2D was induced by 25weeks of high-fat diet. Linagliptin treatment was carried out for 7weeks. Standard diet fed-mice were used as controls. Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion 4weeks into the linagliptin treatment. Neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation/neuroblast formation and striatal neurogenesis/gliogenesis were assessed 3weeks after stroke. The effect of linagliptin on NSC viability was also determined in vitro. The results show that linagliptin enhances NSC proliferation in T2D mice but not in normal mice. Linagliptin did not increase NSC number in vitro indicating that the effect of linagliptin on NSC proliferation in T2D is indirect. Neurogenesis and gliogenesis were not affected. In conclusion, we found no correlation between acute neuroprotection (occurring in both T2D and normal mice) and increased NSC proliferation (occurring only in T2D mice). However, our results show that linagliptin evokes a differential response on NSC proliferation after stroke in normal and T2D mice suggesting that DPP-4 inhibition effect in the CNS might go beyond the well known increase of GLP-1.
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