Overweight and obesity in Australian mothers: epidemic or endemic?
ABSTRACT To document temporal trends in maternal overweight and obesity in Australian women and to examine associations with pregnancy outcomes.
Retrospective 12-year cohort study of 75 432 women with singleton pregnancies who had pre-pregnancy height and weight data available and who gave birth in a tertiary referral maternity hospital in Brisbane between January 1998 and December 2009.
Maternal body mass index (BMI); prevalence of overweight and obesity, and pregnancy complications including hypertension, gestational diabetes, caesarean delivery, and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
From 1998 to 2009, class III and class II obesity increased significantly (from 1.2% to 2.0%, and 2.5% to 3.2%, respectively), while the proportions of underweight women and those with class I obesity fell slightly (from 7.9% to 7.4%, and 7.7% to 7.5%, respectively). Increasing maternal BMI was associated with many adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertension in pregnancy, gestational diabetes, caesarean delivery, perinatal mortality (stillbirth and neonatal death), babies who were large for gestational age, and neonatal morbidities including hypoglycaemia, jaundice, respiratory distress and the need for neonatal intensive care (P < 0.001 for all). Most associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal age, parity, insurance status, smoking status, ethnicity and year of the birth. The frequency of congenital anomalies was not associated with maternal BMI (P = 0.71).
Maternal overweight and obesity are endemic challenges for Australian obstetric care and are associated with serious maternal and neonatal complications, including perinatal mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Overwhelming evidence reveals the close link between unwarranted weight gain among childbearing women and childhood adiposity. Yet current barriers limit the capacity of perinatal health care providers (PHCPs) to offer healthy lifestyle counselling. In response, today's Internet savvy women are turning to online resources to access health information, with the potential of revolutionising health services by enabling PHCPs to guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents the findings of a project designed to develop an online resource to promote healthy lifestyles during the perinatal period. The methodology involved focus groups and interviews with perinatal women and PHCPs to determine what online information was needed, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The outcome was the development of the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and smartphone app. This clinically-endorsed, interactive online resource provides perinatal women with a personalised tool to track their weight, diet, physical activity, emotional wellbeing, and sleep patterns based on the developmental stage of their child with links to quality-assured information. One year since the launch of the online resource, data indicates it provides a low-cost intervention delivered across most geographic and socioeconomic strata without additional demands on health service staff.Journal of obesity 04/2014; 2014:573928. DOI:10.1155/2014/573928
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ABSTRACT: Obesity in the childbearing population is increasingly common. Obesity is associated with increased risk for a number of maternal and neonatal pregnancy complications. Some of these complications, such as gestational diabetes, are risk factors for long-term disease in both mother and baby. While clinical practice guidelines advocate for healthy weight prior to pregnancy, there is not a clear directive for achieving healthy weight before conception. There are known benefits to even moderate weight loss prior to pregnancy, but there are potential adverse effects of restricted nutrition during the periconceptional period. Epidemiological and animal studies point to differences in offspring conceived during a time of maternal nutritional restriction. These include changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, body composition, glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular function. The periconceptional period is therefore believed to play an important role in programming offspring physiological function and is sensitive to nutritional insult. This review summarizes the evidence to date for offspring programming as a result of maternal periconception weight loss. Further research is needed in humans to clearly identify benefits and potential risks of losing weight in the months before conceiving. This may then inform us of clinical practice guidelines for optimal approaches to achieving a healthy weight before pregnancy.Journal of obesity 04/2014; 2014:204295. DOI:10.1155/2014/204295
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ABSTRACT: A systematic review was conducted to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes with gestational weight gain (GWG) below the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines compared with within the guidelines in obese women. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Register, CINHAL and Web of Science were searched from 1 January 2009 to 31 July 2014. Quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Three primary outcomes were included: preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA). Eighteen cohort studies were included. GWG below the guidelines had higher odds of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–2.00) and SGA (AOR 1.24; 95% CI 1.13–1.36) and lower odds of LGA (AOR 0.77; 95% CI 0.73–0.81) than GWG within the guidelines. Across the three obesity classes, the odds of SGA and LGA did not show any notable gradient and remained unexplored for preterm birth. Decreased odds were noted for macrosomia (AOR 0.64; 95% CI 0.54–0.77), gestational hypertension (AOR, 0.70; 95% CI 0.53–0.93), pre-eclampsia (AOR 0.90; 95% CI 0.82–0.99) and caesarean (AOR 0.87; 95% CI 0.82–0.92). GWG below the guidelines cannot be routinely recommended but might occasionally be individualized for certain women, with caution, taking into account other known risk factors.Obesity Reviews 02/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1111/obr.12238 · 7.86 Impact Factor