This study aimed to evaluate the effects of noninvasive acupoint stimulation therapy with middle-frequency electrical waves on dysmenorrhea in young women.
This randomized controlled trial enrolled 66 gynecology patients who had primary dysmenorrhea, which was defined as painful menstruation without pelvic pathology (secondary dysmenorrhea). Pathology was ruled out by gynecological ultrasound examination and serum concentration of CA-125. Subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=34) and control group (n=32). Main outcome measures included McGill Questionnaire Short-form and numerical rating scale for pain intensity. Acupuncture-like trancutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (AL-TENS) of middle-frequency (1000 Hz-10,000 Hz) was applied at Hegu (LI4) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) points in the experimental group twice weekly for 8 weeks; the control group received AL-TENS on nonacupoints. Pre- and postintervention results were recorded.
Prior to AL-TENS intervention, no significant differences were found in pain scale and pain intensity between experimental and control groups. After AL-TENS intervention, average total pain score in the experimental group was significantly lower than in the control group (experimental group 2.9±1.2, control group 5.4±2.2; p<0.001). Significant differences were observed between experimental and control groups in average change in pain scores between pre- and postintervention (experimental group 4.5±1.9, control group 1.39±2.0; p<0.001). Pain severity at postintervention was also significantly different between groups (p<0.001).
Noninvasive electro-acupuncture stimulation therapy with middle-frequency electric waves applied at both Hegu (LI4) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints mitigates pain in dysmenorrhea.
"The mean ages of the participants in the included trials ranged from 14 years to 40 years. Three trials compared an acupuncture group with a control group   ; one trial compared the effects of acupressure at different acupoints ; one trial compared the effect of acupressure at two acupoints with a control ; one trial compared the relative efficacies of acupressure, ibuprofen, and a placebo ; and one trial compared the effect of acupressure with that of nitric oxide . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common gynecological symptom reported by women and constitutes a high health, social and economic burden. Chemotherapies with their attendant side effects have not yielded satisfactory outcomes. Alternative non-pharmacological interventions, including acupuncture and acupressure, have been advocated, but evidence regarding their beneficial effect is inconclusive. This study sought to obtain evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture and acupressure interventions. Twelve electronic databases were searched by using the menstrual pain intensity and quality of life as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively, with the PEDro guideline for quality appraisal. Data unsuitable for a meta-analysis were reported as descriptive data. The search yielded 38 citations, from which 8 studies were systematically reviewed, 4 of the 8 being eligible for meta-analysis. The systematic review showed moderate methodological quality with a mean of 6.1 out of 10 on the PEDro quality scale. Acupressure showed evidence of pain relief while acupuncture improved both the mental and the physical components of quality of life. In conclusion, physiotherapists should consider using acupuncture and acupressure to treat primary dysmenorrhea, but a need exists for higher quality, randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trials with adequate sample sizes to establish clearly the effects of these modalities.
Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jams.2015.06.010
"As one of the modern methods of acupuncture, EA uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. Evidence suggests that EA is safe and effective in a wide variety of diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome , dysmenorrhea , and autism spectrum disorder . Skeletal muscle is crucial for structural support, movement , and function. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on Zusanli (ST36) and Ashi acupoints in promoting skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibiting excessive fibrosis after contusion in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal, contusion, EA, and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I). An acute skeletal muscle contusion was produced on the right gastrocnemius (GM) by an instrument-based drop-mass technique. EA was performed for 15 minutes every two days with 0.4 mA (2 Hz), and GM injections were executed with rhIGF-I (0.25 mL once a week). Rabbits treated with EA had a higher T-SOD and T-AOC serum activities and lower MDA serum level, the blood perfusion of which was also significantly higher. In the EA group, the diameter of the myofibril was uniform and the arrangement was regular, contrary to the contusion group. The number and diameter of regenerative myofibers and MHC expression were increased in the EA group. EA treatment significantly decreased fibrosis formation and reduced both GDF-8 and p-Smad2/3 expressions in injured muscle. Our data indicate that EA may promote myofiber regeneration and reduce excessive fibrosis by improving blood flow and antioxidant capacities. Additionally, EA may regulate signaling factor expression after contusion.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2013; 2013:869398. DOI:10.1155/2013/869398 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we used a mouse model of zymosan-induced colorectal hypersensitivity, a similar model of IBS in our previous work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the different number of times of acupuncture and elucidate its potential mechanism of EA treatment. Colorectal distension (CRD) tests show that intracolonic zymosan injection does, while saline injection does not, induce a typical colorectal hypersensitivity. EA treatment at classical acupoints Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) in both hind limbs for 15 min slightly attenuated and significantly blunted the hypersensitive responses after first and fifth acupunctures, respectively, to colorectal distention in zymosan treatment mice, but not in saline treatment mice. Western blot results indicated that ion channel and TrpV1 expression in colorectum as well as ERK1/2 MAPK pathway activation in peripheral and central nerve system might be involved in this process. Hence, we conclude that EA is a potential therapeutic tool in the treatment and alleviation of chronic abdominal pain, and the effectiveness of acupuncture analgesia is accumulative with increased number of times of acupuncture when compared to that of a single time of acupuncture.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2012; 2012(2):483123. DOI:10.1155/2012/483123 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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