Discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumour 1 (DOG1): a useful immunohistochemical marker for diagnosing chondroblastoma.
ABSTRACT Cellular areas of chondroblastoma are composed of polygonal chondroblasts with indented nuclei and scattered osteoclast-type multinucleated cells. To learn more about the phenotype of chondroblasts, we investigated the expression of several established immunohistochemical markers in chondroblastomas.
Nine chondroblastomas were analysed using immunohistochemical antibodies [CD34, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), DOG1, CD117, AE1/AE3 and CD163]. Ten chondromyxoid fibromas, seven giant cell tumours of bone and four foetal proximal femurs were also analysed. The cellular areas of each chondroblastoma contained nests of DOG1(+) αSMA(+) CD117(-) CD34(-) chondroblasts, a phenotype that was not detected in chondromyxoid fibroma cases or in giant cell tumours. Although AE1/AE3 was expressed in all chondroblastomas, the staining intensity and proportion of the positive cells varied widely. Intra-lesional CD163(+) macrophages were detected in all cases of chondroblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma and giant cell tumours.
Our results demonstrated nests of membranous DOG1(+) chondroblasts located within cellular portions of chondroblastoma containing diffuse heterogeneous infiltrates of mostly DOG1(-) chondroblasts, CD163(+) macrophages and multinucleated osteoclastic giant cells. Thus, chondroblastoma can be added to the tumours that are usually positive for DOG1, alongside gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), rare solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas and exceptional mesenchymal tumours including uterine type retroperitoneal leiomyoma, peritoneal leiomyomatosis and synovial sarcoma.