CCR7/CCL19 controls expression of EDG-1 in T cells.
ABSTRACT T lymphocytes circulate between the blood, tissues, and lymph. These T cells carry out immune functions, using the C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and its cognate ligands, CCL19 and CCL21, to enter and travel through the lymph nodes. Distinct roles for each ligand in regulating T lymphocyte trafficking have remained elusive. We report that in the human T cell line HuT78 and in primary murine T lymphocytes, signaling from CCR7/CCL19 leads to increased expression and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) within eight hours of stimulation. Within 48-72 h we observed peak levels of endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG-1), which mediates the egress of T lymphocytes from lymph nodes. The increased expression of EDG-1 was preceded by up-regulation of its transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF-2). To determine the cellular effect of disrupting ERK5 signaling from CCR7, we examined the migration of ERK5(flox/flox)/Lck-Cre murine T cells to EDG-1 ligands. While CCL19-stimulated ERK5(flox/flox) naïve T cells showed increased migration to EDG-1 ligands at 48 h, the migration of ERK5(flox/flox)/Lck-Cre T cells remained at a basal level. Accordingly, we define a novel signaling pathway that controls EDG-1 up-regulation following stimulation of T cells by CCR7/CCL19. This is the first report to link the two signaling events that control migration through the lymph nodes: CCR7 mediates entry into the lymph nodes and EDG-1 signaling controls their subsequent exit.
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ABSTRACT: Objective-Our aim was to identify the role of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their common receptor CCR7 in atherogenesis and to study the relationships between CCL19, CCL21, and CCR7 gene variants and coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population. Approach and Results-Immunohistochemical analysis of samples with atherosclerosis of various stages showed increased CCL19, CCL21, and CCR7 expression in atherosclerotic coronary plaques compared with nonatherosclerotic controls. Expression levels increased in positive correlation with coronary lesion stage. Cell adhesion assays confirmed that CCL19 promoted monocyte adhesion, which was induced by CCR7, to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, an effect partially antagonized by atorvastatin. After the human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with CCR7-neutralizing antibody, both CCL19- and CCL21-induced monocyte to human umbilical vein endothelial cell migration and CCL19-induced monocyte to human umbilical vein endothelial cell adhesion were abolished. The associations between genetic variants of CCL19, CCL21, CCR7, and coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The following single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with coronary artery disease: CCL19 rs2227302, CCL21 rs2812377, and CCR7 rs588019. Individuals with the CCL19 rs2227302 T allele or CCL21 rs2812377 G allele had higher plasma CCL19 levels than those with C/C genotype and higher CCL21 levels than those with T/T genotype in both case and control subjects. Conclusion-CCL19/CCL21-CCR7 is a novel homeostatic chemokine system that modulates human monocyte adhesion and migration, promoting atherogenesis. It is associated with coronary artery disease risk in Chinese Han individuals. These data suggest that the CCL19/CCL21-CCR7 axis plays an important role in atherosclerosis progression.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2014; 34(9). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.303081 · 5.53 Impact Factor
Article: Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells constitute a recently identified lymphocyte lineage that occupies tissues without recirculating. They provide a first response against infections reencountered at body surfaces, where they accelerate pathogen clearance. Because Trm cells are not present within peripheral blood, they have not yet been well characterized, but are transcriptionally, phenotypically, and functionally distinct from recirculating central and effector memory T cells. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge of Trm cell ontogeny, regulation, maintenance, and function and will highlight technical considerations for studying this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Immunity 12/2014; 41(6):886-897. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.12.007 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ectopic lymphoid tissue, also known as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) develop adaptively within sites of chronic tissue inflammation, thereby allowing the host to efficiently crossprime specific immune effector cells within sites of disease. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of TLO in the tumor microenvironment (TME) predicts better overall survival. We will discuss the relevance of extranodal T cell priming within the TME as a means to effectively promote anti-tumor immunity and the strategic use of dendritic cell (DC)-based therapies to reinforce this clinically preferred process in the cancer-bearing host.Frontiers in Immunology 11/2013; 4:388. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00388