COL4A2 mutation associated with familial porencephaly and small-vessel disease.
ABSTRACT Familial porencephaly, leukoencephalopathy and small-vessel disease belong to the spectrum of disorders ascribed to dominant mutations in the gene encoding for type IV collagen alpha-1 (COL4A1). Mice harbouring mutations in either Col4a1 or Col4a2 suffer from porencephaly, hydrocephalus, cerebral and ocular bleeding and developmental defects. We observed porencephaly and white matter lesions in members from two families that lack COL4A1 mutations. We hypothesized that COL4A2 mutations confer genetic predisposition to porencephaly, therefore we sequenced COL4A2 in the family members and characterized clinical, neuroradiological and biochemical phenotypes. Genomic sequencing of COL4A2 identified the heterozygous missense G1389R in exon 44 in one family and the c.3206delC change in exon 34 leading to frame shift and premature stop, in the second family. Fragmentation and duplication of epidermal basement membranes were observed by electron microscopy in a c.3206delC patient skin biopsy, consistent with abnormal collagen IV network. Collagen chain accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been proposed as cellular mechanism in COL4A1 mutations. In COL4A2 (3206delC) fibroblasts we detected increased rates of apoptosis and no signs of ER stress. Mutation phenotypes varied, including porencephaly, white matter lesions, cerebellar and optic nerve hypoplasia and unruptured carotid aneurysm. In the second family however, we found evidence for additional factors contributing to the phenotype. We conclude that dominant COL4A2 mutations are a novel major risk factor for familial cerebrovascular disease, including porencephaly and small-vessel disease with reduced penetrance and variable phenotype, which might also be modified by other contributing factors.
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ABSTRACT: Written and verbal language are neurobehavioral traits vital to the development of communication skills. Unfortunately, disorders involving these traits-specifically reading disability (RD) and language impairment (LI)-are common and prevent affected individuals from developing adequate communication skills, leaving them at risk for adverse academic, socioeconomic, and psychiatric outcomes. Both RD and LI are complex traits that frequently co-occur, leading us to hypothesize that these disorders share genetic etiologies. To test this, we performed a genome wide association study on individuals affected with both RD and LI in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The strongest associations were seen with markers in ZNF385D (OR=1.81, p=5.45 x 10(-7) ) and COL4A2 (OR=1.71, p=7.59x10(-7) ). Markers within NDST4 showed the strongest associations with LI individually (OR=1.827, p=1.40x10(-7) ). We replicated association of ZNF385D using receptive vocabulary measures in the Pediatric Imaging Neurocognitive Genetics study (p=0.00245). We then used diffusion tensor imaging fiber tract volume data on 16 fiber tracts to examine the implications of replicated markers. ZNF385D was a predictor of overall fiber tract volumes in both hemispheres, as well as global brain volume. Here, we present evidence for ZNF385D as a candidate gene for RD and LI. The implication of transcription factor ZNF385D in RD and LI underscores the importance of transcriptional regulation in the development of higher order neurocognitive traits. Further study is necessary to discern target genes of ZNF385D and how it functions within neural development of fluent language.Genes Brain and Behavior 09/2013; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type IV collagen α1 and α2 chains form heterotrimers that constitute an essential component of basement membranes. Mutations in COL4A1, encoding the α1 chain, cause a multisystem disease with prominent cerebrovascular manifestations, including porencephaly, bleeding-prone cerebral small vessel disease, and intracranial aneurysms. Mutations in COL4A2 have only been reported in a few porencephaly families so far. Herein, we report on a young adult patient with recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage, leukoencephalopathy, intracranial aneurysms, nephropathy, and myopathy associated with a novel COL4A2 mutation. We extensively investigated a 29-year-old male patient with recurrent deep intracerebral hemorrhages causing mild motor and sensory hemisyndromes. Brain MRI showed deep intracerebral hemorrhages of different age, diffuse leukoencephalopathy, multiple cerebral microbleeds and small aneurysms of the carotid siphon bilaterally. Laboratory work-up revealed significant microscopic hematuria and elevation of creatine-kinase. Genetic testing found a de novo glycine mutation within the COL4A2 triple helical domain. The presented case completes the spectrum of cerebral and systemic manifestations of COL4A2 mutations that appears to be very similar to that in COL4A1 mutations. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of screening both COL4A1 and COL4A2 in patients showing recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage of unknown etiology, particularly if associated with leukoencephalopathy.Journal of Neurology 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Haemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 20% of stroke cases and porencephaly is a clinical consequence of perinatal cerebral haemorrhaging. Here we report the identification of a novel dominant G702D mutation in the collagen domain of COL4A2 (collagen IV alpha chain 2) in a family displaying porencephaly with reduced penetrance. COL4A2 is the obligatory protein partner of COL4A1 but in contrast to most COL4A1 mutations, the COL4A2 mutation does not lead to eye or kidney disease. Analysis of dermal biopsies from patient and his unaffected father, who also carries the mutation, revealed that both display basement membrane (BM) defects. Intriguingly, defective collagen IV incorporation into the dermal BM was only observed in the patient and was associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of COL4A2 in primary dermal fibroblasts. This intracellular accumulation led to ER-stress, unfolded protein response activation, reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Interestingly, absence of ER retention of COL4A2 and ER-stress in cells from the unaffected father indicate that accumulation and/or clearance of mutant COL4A2 from the ER may be a critical modifier for disease development. Our analysis also revealed that mutant collagen IV is degraded via the proteasome. Importantly, treatment of patient cells with a chemical chaperone decreased intracellular COL4A2, ER-stress and apoptosis, demonstrating that reducing intracellular collagen accumulation can ameliorate the cellular phenotype of COL4A2 mutations. Importantly, these data highlight that manipulation of chaperone levels, intracellular collagen accumulation and ER-stress are potential therapeutic options for collagen IV diseases including haemorrhagic stroke.Human Molecular Genetics 09/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor