Nuclear localization of Prickle2 is required to establish cell polarity during early mouse embryogenesis

Laboratory for Animal Resources and Genetic Engineering, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB), Chuo-ku, Kobe, Japan.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.55). 02/2012; 364(2):138-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.01.025
Source: PubMed


The establishment of trophectoderm (TE) manifests as the formation of epithelium, and is dependent on many structural and regulatory components that are commonly found and function in many epithelial tissues. However, the mechanism of TE formation is currently not well understood. Prickle1 (Pk1), a core component of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, is essential for epiblast polarization before gastrulation, yet the roles of Pk family members in early mouse embryogenesis are obscure. Here we found that Pk2(-/-) embryos died at E3.0-3.5 without forming the blastocyst cavity and not maintained epithelial integrity of TE. These phenotypes were due to loss of the apical-basal (AB) polarity that underlies the asymmetric redistribution of microtubule networks and proper accumulation of AB polarity components on each membrane during compaction. In addition, we found GTP-bound active form of nuclear RhoA was decreased in Pk2(-/-) embryos during compaction. We further show that the first cell fate decision was disrupted in Pk2(-/-) embryos. Interestingly, Pk2 localized to the nucleus from the 2-cell to around the 16-cell stage despite its cytoplasmic function previously reported. Inhibiting farnesylation blocked Pk2's nuclear localization and disrupted AB cell polarity, suggesting that Pk2 farnesylation is essential for its nuclear localization and function. The cell polarity phenotype was efficiently rescued by nuclear but not cytoplasmic Pk2, demonstrating the nuclear localization of Pk2 is critical for its function.

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    • "The mouse genome has four Prickle homologs, with Prickle1 and Prickle2 being most closely related to their Drosophila prototype, whereas Prickle3 and Prickle4 are fairly distant. Prickle1 and Prickle2 were reported to be essential for AB polarity of embryonic epiblasts since ablation of either in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality prior to gastrulation (Tao et al., 2012; Tao et al., 2009). An ENU-induced frameshift mutation in mouse Prickle1 resulted in limb defects and death shortly after birth (Yang et al., 2013), suggesting a yet to be explored late-stage Prickle1 function. "
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    ABSTRACT: Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling plays a critical role in tissue morphogenesis. In mammals, disruption of three of the six ‘‘core PCP’’ components results in polarity-dependent defects with rotated cochlear hair cell stereocilia and open neural tube. We recently demonstrated a role of Prickle1, a core PCP molecule in Drosophila, in mammalian neuronal development. To examine Prickle1function along a broader developmental window, we generated three mutant alleles in mice. We show that the complete loss of Prickle1 leads to systemic tissue outgrowth defects, aberrant cell organization and disruption of polarity machinery. Curiously, Prickle1 mutants recapitulate the characteristic features of human Robinow syndrome and phenocopy mouse mutants with Wnt5a or Ror2 gene defects, prompting us to explore an association of Prickle1 with the Wnt pathway. We show that Prickle1 is a proteasomal target of Wnt5a signaling and that Dvl2, a target of Wnt5a signaling, is misregulated in Prickle1 mutants. Our studies implicate Prickle1 as a key component of the Wnt-signaling pathway and suggest that Prickle1 mediates some of the WNT5A-associated genetic defects in Robinow syndrome
    Biology Open 09/2014; 3(9):861-870. DOI:10.1242/bio.20148375 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "These structures are necessary for the proteins to localize to the nucleus, which is critical for the Prickle1 protein function as a transcription modulator (Bassuk et al., 2008; Mapp et al., 2011; Tao et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2013). In fact, recent data suggest that vertebrate Prickle1's function might in part be mediated by nuclear signaling (Mapp et al., 2011; Tao et al., 2012). We therefore hypothesized that Prickle1 plays a role in Wnt/PCP signaling partially through gene regulation, possibly a neo-functionalization of Prickle1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Wnt/PCP signaling plays a critical role in multiple developmental processes, including limb development. Wnt5a, a ligand of the PCP pathway, signals through the Ror2/Vangl2 or the Vangl2/Ryk complex to regulate limb development along the proximal-distal axis in mice. Based on the interaction between Van Gogh and Prickle in Drosophila, we hypothesized the vertebrate Prickle1 has a similar function as Vangl2 in limb development. Results: We show Prickle1 is expressed in the skeletal condensates that will differentiate into chondrocytes and later form bones. Disrupted Prickle1 function in Prickle1(C251X/C251X) mouse mutants alters expression of genes such as Bmp4, Fgf8, Vangl2, and Wnt5a. These expression changes correlate with shorter and wider bones in the limbs and loss of one phalangeal segment in digits 2-5 of Prickle1C251X mutants. These growth defects along the proximal-distal axis are also associated with increased cell death in the growing digit tip, reduced cell death in the interdigital membrane, and disrupted chondrocyte polarity. Conclusions: We suggest Prickle1 is part of the Wnt5a/PCP signaling, regulating cell polarity and affecting expression of multiple factors to stunt limb growth through altered patterns of gene expression, including the PCP genes Wnt5a and Vangl2.
    Developmental Dynamics 11/2013; 242(11). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.24025 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously identified a nuclear envelope protein repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST)/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF)-interacting Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 (LIM) domain protein (RILP) that we proposed functions in the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional repressor REST/NRSF. In this study we assessed the functionality of the prenylation motif, protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites and nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) of RILP. [(3)H]-mevalonolactone labeled endogenous RILP, showing that RILP is indeed prenylated, while phosphorylation analysis showed that the two PKA sites are phosphorylated. Blocking RILP prenylation, mutating the NLSs or mutating the PKA phosphorylation sites caused RILP to mislocalize to the cytosol. Concurrent with this mislocalization of RILP, REST/NRSF and REST4, which are normally found in the nucleus, co-localized in the cytosol with the RILP mutants. This provides additional evidence that RILP interacts with REST/NRSF and REST4 in vivo, and is involved in the nuclear localization of REST/NRSF and REST4. Reporter gene analysis using the promoter region of the human cholinergic gene locus revealed that these RILP mutants prevented repression of the reporter gene. By trapping REST/NRSF in the cytosol, the RILP mutants prevented translocation to the nucleus where REST/NRSF binds to an RE-1/NRSE element to repress gene transcription. These results show that RILP is required for REST/NRSF nuclear targeting and function.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2006; 96(4):1130-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03608.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
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