A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Children to Assess the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Thimerosal-free Trivalent Seasonal Influenza Vaccine
ABSTRACT Children are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting influenza infection and are a high priority group for influenza vaccination.
This was a randomized, observer-blind, multicenter study (NCT00980005) based in the United States. Children were randomized (1:1) to receive either the study vaccine, a thimerosal-free trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine or an active comparator (control vaccine) and were allotted to 1 of 3 age categories: 3-4, 5-8 and 9-17 years. The primary objective was to show noninferiority of the study vaccine versus a US- licensed control influenza vaccine.
A total of 2116 children were vaccinated (study vaccine N = 1055, control vaccine N = 1061). The predefined noninferiority criteria and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research criteria for clinical benefit were met for all 3 seasonal virus strains in all children and each age strata. The ratios of the adjusted geometric mean titers (control vaccine over study vaccine) ranged from 0.93 to 1.03 for the 3 virus strains whereas the differences in seroconversion rate (control vaccine minus study vaccine) were between -2.42% and -1.60%. Postvaccination geometric mean titers (range: 213.7-414.7 versus 200.2-451.9) and seroconversion rates (range: 59.8-81.1% versus 58.2-78.6%) were comparable for the 2 vaccines. The safety and reactogenicity profiles were similar for both treatment groups in all age strata.
Immunologic noninferiority of the study vaccine was demonstrated compared with the control vaccine. Furthermore, the study vaccine had a similar safety profile as the control vaccine in children.
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ABSTRACT: Vaccinating school-aged children against influenza can reduce age-specific and population-level illness attack rates. Using a stochastic simulation model of influenza transmission, the authors assessed strategies for vaccinating children in the United States, varying the vaccine type, coverage level, and reproductive number R (average number of secondary cases produced by a typical primary case). Results indicated that vaccinating children can substantially reduce population-level illness attack rates over a wide range of scenarios. The greatest absolute reduction in influenza illness cases per season occurred at R values ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 for a given vaccine coverage level. The indirect, total, and overall effects of vaccinating children were strong when transmission intensity was low to intermediate. The indirect effects declined rapidly as transmission intensity increased. In a mild influenza season (R = 1.1), approximately 19 million influenza cases could be prevented by vaccinating 70% of children. At most, nearly 100 million cases of influenza illness could be prevented, depending on the proportion of children vaccinated and the transmission intensity. Given the current worldwide threat of novel influenza A (H1N1), with an estimated R of 1.4-1.6, health officials should consider strategies for vaccinating children against novel influenza A (H1N1) as well as seasonal influenza.American journal of epidemiology 09/2009; 170(6):679-86. DOI:10.1093/aje/kwp237 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: On July 7, 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Public Health Service issued a joint statement calling for removal of thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, from vaccines. This action was prompted in part by a risk assessment from the Food and Drug Administration that is presented here. The risk assessment consisted of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The literature was reviewed to identify known toxicity of thimerosal, ethylmercury (a metabolite of thimerosal) and methylmercury (a similar organic mercury compound) and to determine the doses at which toxicity occurs. Maximal potential exposure to mercury from vaccines was calculated for children at 6 months old and 2 years, under the US childhood immunization schedule, and compared with the limits for mercury exposure developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, the Food and Drug Administration, and the World Health Organization. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions from thimerosal exposure are well-recognized. Identified acute toxicity from inadvertent high-dose exposure to thimerosal includes neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Limited data on toxicity from low-dose exposures to ethylmercury are available, but toxicity may be similar to that of methylmercury. Chronic, low-dose methylmercury exposure may cause subtle neurologic abnormalities. Depending on the immunization schedule, vaccine formulation, and infant weight, cumulative exposure of infants to mercury from thimerosal during the first 6 months of life may exceed EPA guidelines. Our review revealed no evidence of harm caused by doses of thimerosal in vaccines, except for local hypersensitivity reactions. However, some infants may be exposed to cumulative levels of mercury during the first 6 months of life that exceed EPA recommendations. Exposure of infants to mercury in vaccines can be reduced or eliminated by using products formulated without thimerosal as a preservative.PEDIATRICS 06/2001; 107(5):1147-54. DOI:10.1542/peds.107.5.1147 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study (NCT00383123) compared the immunogenicity and safety of 2 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines: Fluarix [GlaxoSmithKline (study vaccine)] and Fluzone [Sanofi Pasteur (control vaccine)] in children 6 months to <18 years. Children, stratified by age and randomized, received either study (N = 2115) or control vaccine (N = 1210) at day 0 (and day 28 for previously unvaccinated children younger than 9 years). Children 6 months to <5 years comprised the according-to-protocol (ATP) cohort for immunogenicity, whereas the reactogenicity/safety group included all children 6 months to <18 years. The study aimed to demonstrate immunologic noninferiority of study vaccine versus control vaccine. For children 6 months to <5 years, the predefined noninferiority criteria were not reached, mainly due to the differences in immune response in children 6 months to <3 years with no influenza vaccination history. All reactogenicity/safety endpoints were within the same range in both vaccine groups. The study vaccine demonstrated a good safety and reactogenicity profile; however, it did not meet the predefined noninferiority criteria in children 6 months to <5 years. The study vaccine was as immunogenic as the control vaccine in children aged 3 to <5 years.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10/2010; 29(10):924-30. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e3181e075be · 3.14 Impact Factor