Impact of first-line sildenafil monotreatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension.
ABSTRACT Sildenafil has been demonstrated as effective for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of clinical events after sildenafil monotreatment as a first-line therapy in patients with PAH over a long-term observation period.
Sildenafil was administered as a first-line drug to 46 patients with PAH (including 24 patients with idiopathic PAH) during 2003-2010. We investigated subsequent clinical events such as the addition of epoprostenol, hospitalization for right-side heart failure, and death. All the hemodynamic parameters and the 6-min walk distance improved significantly in the enrolled patients as a whole receiving sildenafil treatment; 15 (33%) of the 46 patients required the addition of epoprostenol during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that more than 60% of the patients receiving first-line sildenafil treatment did not require the addition of epoprostenol for a 5-year period. Furthermore, the 5-year survival rate after first-line sildenafil treatment was 81%. Finally, more than 75% of the enrolled patients did not reach the composite endpoint of hospitalization for right-side heart failure and death for a 5-year period.
This study describes the long-term outcome of patients with PAH receiving sildenafil monotreatment as a first-line therapy and suggests that it is a promising therapeutic strategy.
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ABSTRACT: Data on long-term efficacy of bosentan in unselected idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients are lacking. We aimed to describe the long-term outcome of consecutive IPAH patients treated first-line with bosentan. A retrospective analysis of 103 consecutive New York Heart Association functional class III/IV IPAH patients treated with bosentan at our centre between November 1999 and May 2004 was performed. The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and haemodynamics were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 12 months. Mean follow-up was 24+/-15 months. At 4 months, significant improvements in exercise capacity and haemodynamics were observed and persisted up to 1 year. Overall survival estimates were 90 and 87% and event-free status (survival without transplantation, prostanoid initiation, or hospitalization for right heart failure) estimates were 61 and 44% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Forty-five (44%) patients required prostanoid therapy during follow-up. The 6MWD and the right atrial pressure at baseline and the 6MWD, the increase in 6MWD, and the decrease in pulmonary resistance after 4 months of treatment were associated with long-term outcomes. In our series of consecutive IPAH patients treated with bosentan, improvements in exercise capacity and haemodynamics were similar to those observed in previous randomized trials. However, on the basis of local criteria, many patients required the addition of prostanoid therapy during follow-up.European Heart Journal 04/2006; 27(5):589-95. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is poor. To determine prognosis and guide therapy, an acute hemodynamic trial of selective pulmonary vasodilators, usually inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), was performed. We hypothesized that oral sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is a safe and effective alternative to iNO. We studied 13 consecutive patients (mean+/-SEM, 44+/-2 years of age; 9 women) referred for consideration of heart-lung transplantation or as a guide to medical therapy. All but one were functional class III or IV. Patients had primary PHT (n=9), pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=2), or secondary PHT (n=2). Hemodynamics and serum cyclic guanosine-monophosphate levels (cGMP) were measured at baseline and at peak effects of iNO (80 ppm), sildenafil (75 mg), and their combination. The decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance was similar with iNO (-19+/-5%) and sildenafil (-27+/-3%), whereas sildenafil+iNO was more effective than iNO alone (-32+/-5%, P<0.003). Sildenafil and sildenafil+iNO increased cardiac index (17+/-5% and 17+/-4%, respectively), whereas iNO did not (-0.2+/-2.0%, P<0.003). iNO increased, whereas sildenafil tended to decrease, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (+15+/-6 versus -9+/-7%, P<0.0007). Systemic arterial pressure was similar among groups and did not decrease with treatment. cGMP levels increased similarly with iNO and sildenafil, and their combination synergistically elevated cGMP (P<0.0001). A single oral dose of sildenafil is as effective and selective a pulmonary vasodilator as iNO. Sildenafil may be superior to iNO in that it increases cardiac output and does not increase wedge pressure. Future studies are indicated to establish whether sildenafil could be effective over a longer duration.Circulation 05/2002; 105(20):2398-403. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin 1, a powerful endogenous vasoconstrictor and mitogen, might be a cause of pulmonary hypertension. We describe the efficacy and safety of bosentan, a dual endothelin-receptor antagonist that can be taken orally, in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 32 patients with pulmonary hypertension (primary or associated with scleroderma) were randomly assigned to bosentan (62.5mg taken twice daily for 4 weeks then 125 mg twice daily) or placebo for a minimum of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in exercise capacity. Secondary endpoints included changes in cardiopulmonary haemodynamics, Borg dyspnoea index, WHO functional class, and withdrawal due to clinical worsening. Analysis was by intention to treat. In patients given bosentan, the distance walked in 6 min improved by 70 m at 12 weeks compared with baseline, whereas it worsened by 6 m in those on placebo (difference 76 m [95% CI 12-139], p=0.021). The improvement was maintained for at least 20 weeks. The cardiac index was 1.0 L min(-1) m(-2) (95% CI 0.6-1.4, p<0.0001) greater in patients given bosentan than in those given placebo. Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased by 223 dyn s cm(-)(5) with bosentan, but increased by 191 dyn s cm(-5) with placebo (difference -415 [-608 to -221], p=0.0002). Patients given bosentan had a reduced Borg dyspnoea index and an improved WHO functional class. All three withdrawals from clinical worsening were in the placebo group (p=0.033). The number and nature of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. Bosentan increases exercise capacity and improves haemodynamics in patients with pulmonary hypertension, suggesting that endothelin has an important role in pulmonary hypertension.The Lancet 10/2001; 358(9288):1119-23. · 39.06 Impact Factor