Article

Passive Smoking and Risk of Cognitive Impairment in Women Who Never Smoke

Division of Health and Social Care Research, King's College London, Capital House, 42 Weston St, Seventh Floor, London SE1 3QD, England. )
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 02/2012; 172(3):271-3. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.762
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    • "Chen R, et al. Occup Environ Med 2013;70:63–69. doi:10.1136/oemed-2012-100785 Environment"
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a range of adverse health effects, but its association with dementia remains unclear and with dementia syndromes unknown. We examined the dose–response relationship between ETS exposure and dementia syndromes. Methods Using a standard method of GMS, we interviewed 5921 people aged ≥60 years in five provinces in China in 2007–2009 and characterised their ETS exposure. Five levels of dementia syndrome were diagnosed using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy instrument. The relative risk (RR) of moderate (levels 1–2) and severe (levels 3–5) dementia syndromes among participants exposed to ETS was calculated in multivariate adjusted regression models. Results 626 participants (10.6%) had severe dementia syndromes and 869 (14.7%) moderate syndromes. Participants exposed to ETS had a significantly increased risk of severe syndromes (adjusted RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.59). This was dose-dependently related to exposure level and duration. The cumulative exposure dose data showed an adjusted RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.28) for >0–24 level years of exposure, 1.15 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.42) for 25–49 level years, 1.18 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.59) for 59–74 level years, 1.39 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.84) for 75–99 level years and 1.95 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.83) for ≥100 level years. Significant associations with severe syndromes were found in never smokers and in former/current smokers. There were no positive associations between ETS and moderate dementia syndromes. Conclusions ETS should be considered an important risk factor for severe dementia syndromes. Avoidance of ETS may reduce the rates of severe dementia syndromes worldwide.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 10/2012; 70(1). DOI:10.1136/oemed-2012-100785 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive impairment is time-intensive and often omitted in busy outpatient settings. Brief screening tools are needed. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-8 have been used in neurodegenerative disorders. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of these brief screening tools in HIV-infected persons. The AD-8, MoCA, and formal neuropsychological testing were administered to 200 HIV-infected patients who were followed at a single institution. Normalized scores on formal neuropsychological testing were used to define neurocognitive impairment. The sensitivity and specificity of the MoCA and AD-8 were assessed to diagnose the impairment. Neurocognitive impairment was highly prevalent in this cohort: 127 persons (64 %) were diagnosed with neurocognitive impairment based on formal testing. Using the AD-8 and MoCA, 113 (57 %) and 101 (51 %) persons were identified with neurocognitive impairment, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MoCA were 63 % and 71 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of AD-8 were 61 % and 51 %, respectively. Our findings highlight that brief screening tools correlate with formal neuropsychological testing. However, the sensitivities of these screening tools are lower than desired. Nevertheless, given their ease in administration, these tools could assist as a first line for identifying individuals who may subsequently require formal neuropsychological testing.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 01/2013; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s13365-012-0147-5 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with active and passive smoking in older adults. Using a standard interview method, we examined random samples of 6071 people aged ⋝ 60 years in 5 provinces of China during 2007-2009. World age-standardised prevalence for current and former smoking in men was 45.6% and 20.5%, and in women 11.1% and 4.5%. Current smoking reduced with older age but increased with men, low socioeconomic status (SES), alcohol drinking, being never-married, pessimistic and depressive syndromes. Former smoking was associated with men, secondary school education, a middle-high income, being a businessman, being widowed, less frequencies of visiting children/relatives and friends, and worrying about children. Among 3774 never-smokers, the prevalence of passive smoking was 31.5%, and the risk increased with women, low SES, alcohol drinking, being married, having a religious believe, and daily visiting children/relatives. There were sex differences in the associations, and an interaction effect of education and income on smoking and passive smoking. Older Chinese had a higher level of smoking and passive smoking than those in high income countries, reflecting China's failures in controlling smoking. The associations with low SES and different psychosocial aspects and sex differences suggest preventative strategies for active and passive smoking.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 06/2013; 26(6):453-467. DOI:10.3967/0895-3988.2013.06.006 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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