Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older Women

Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60625, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 02/2012; 172(3):219-27. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.683
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic exposure to particulate air pollution may accelerate cognitive decline in older adults, although data on this association are limited. Our objective was to examine long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution, both coarse ([PM 2.5-10 μm in diameter [PM(2.5-10)]) and fine (PM <2.5 μm in diameter [PM(2.5)]), in relation to cognitive decline.
The study population comprised the Nurses' Health Study Cognitive Cohort, which included 19,409 US women aged 70 to 81 years. We used geographic information system-based spatiotemporal smoothing models to estimate recent (1 month) and long-term (7-14 years) exposures to PM(2.5-10), and PM(2.5) preceding baseline cognitive testing (1995-2001) of participants residing in the contiguous United States. We used generalized estimating equation regression to estimate differences in the rate of cognitive decline across levels of PM(2.5-10) and PM(2.5) exposures. The main outcome measure was cognition, via validated telephone assessments, administered 3 times at approximately 2-year intervals, including tests of general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency, working memory, and attention.
Higher levels of long-term exposure to both PM(2.5-10) and PM(2.5) were associated with significantly faster cognitive decline. Two-year decline on a global score was 0.020 (95% CI, -0.032 to -0.008) standard units worse per 10 μg/m(3) increment in PM(2.5-10) exposure and 0.018 (95% CI, -0.035 to -0.002) units worse per 10 μg/m(3) increment in PM(2.5) exposure. These differences in cognitive trajectory were similar to those between women in our cohort who were approximately 2 years apart in age, indicating that the effect of a 10-μg/m(3) increment in long-term PM exposure is cognitively equivalent to aging by approximately 2 years.
Long-term exposure to PM(2.5-10) and PM(2.5) at levels typically experienced by many individuals in the United States is associated with significantly worse cognitive decline in older women.

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Available from: Jeff D Yanosky, Aug 18, 2015
    • "Recently, there has been an increased interest in the effects of air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS) and neurodegeneration. Particle exposures have been associated with decreased cognitive function (Power et al. 2011), faster cognitive decline (Weuve et al. 2012), and Parkinson's disease (PD) hospitalizations (Zanobetti et al. 2014). Toxicological studies provide further evidence of an association between particulate air pollution and neurodegeneration, highlighting potential biological pathways, including systemic inflammation (Block et al. 2007, 2012), which has also been consistently linked with particle exposures (Madrigano et al. 2009; Rückerl et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) has been consistently linked to heart and lung disease. Recently there has been increased interest to examine the effects of air pollution on the nervous system, with evidence showing potentially harmful effects on neurodegeneration. Our objective was to assess the potential impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on event time, defined as time to the first admission for dementia, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases (AD and PD, respectively) in an elderly population across the Northeastern US. We estimated the effects of PM2.5 on first hospital admission for dementia, AD and PD, among all Medicare enrollees >64 years in 50 northeastern US cities (1999-2010). For each outcome, we first ran a Cox proportional hazards model in each city, adjusting for prior cardiopulmonary-related hospitalizations and year, and stratified by follow-up time, age, gender and race. We then pooled the city-specific estimates together by employing a random effects meta-regression. We followed approximately 10 million subjects and observed significant associations of long-term PM2.5 city-wide exposure on all three outcomes. Specifically, we estimated a HR of 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.11 for dementia, 1.15; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.19 for AD and 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12 for PD admissions per 1 μg/m(3) of increase in annual PM2.5 concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and time to the first hospitalization for the most common neurodegenerative diseases. We found strong evidence of an association for all three outcomes. Our findings provide the basis for more studies, as the implications to public health can be crucial.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408973 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Exposure to high concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters below 10 µm (PM 10 ) has been reported to show strong association with mortality (Park et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2013), respiratory symptoms, brain function deficiency such as cognitive decline (Weuve et al., 2012), sleeping pattern disturbances in children (Abou–Khadra, 2013) and even the adverse birth outcomes (Sapkota et al., 2012). Ostro et al. (1999) reported for the city of Bangkok that a 10 μg/m 3 increment in the daily PM 10 concentration was associated with 1–2% increase in the daily natural mortality, 1–2% increase in cardiovascular mortality, and a 3–6% increase in respiratory mortality. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the relationship between the satellite Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) and the ground monitored concentrations of particulate matter (PM) mass and its major constituents (black carbon–BC, organic carbon -OC, sulfates and nitrates), respectively. Both component AOD and total AOD products of Multi–angel Imaging Spectro Radiometer (MISR) were used for comparison along with the AOD product of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The ground PM data available during the period from 2004 to 2010 at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), a suburb site of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, was used. MODIS and MISR AODs were validated against Sun photometer AOD, monitored at the Pimai AERONET station which showed strong linear regression with high R2 values of 0.87 and 0.92, respectively. The correlation coefficients between MODIS and MISR AODs and PM mass concentrations, respectively, were improved after exclusion of observations with cloud cover above 3/10. The R values (square root of determination coefficient R2) for linear relationships between PM10 and MODIS AOD were accordingly increased from 0.33 to 0.58 for MODIS AOD and from 0.25 to 0.54 for MISR AOD, while those for PM2.5 were improved from 0.30 to 0.55 for MODIS AOD and from 0.31 to 0.43 for MISR AOD. The stepwise regression was conducted to analyze the relationship between MISR component AODs and the mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, as well as their constituents. Higher R values were obtained for all regression equations using MISR component AODs as compared to those using total AOD. MISR component AODs showed higher capacity for monitoring daily BC (R=0.74–0.75) and sulfates (R=0.72), as compared to nitrates (R=0.52–0.54) and hourly OC (R=0.47). The potential of MISR component AODs for ambient PM monitoring should be explored and applied in other regions.
    Atmospheric Pollution Research 01/2015; Atmospheric Pollution Research. DOI:10.5094/APR.2015.008 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Ambient GIS-based spatiotemporal exposure model predictions of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were available for all months between January 1988 and December 2007 for the continental United States. These values were generated for each address from nationwide expansions of previously validated spatiotemporal models (Weuve et al. 2012; Yanosky et al. 2008, 2009, in press). The models used monthly average PM 2.5 and/or PM 10 data from the U.S. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A body of literature has suggested an elevated risk of lung cancer associated with particulate matter and traffic-related pollutants. Objective: We examined the relation of lung cancer incidence with long-term residential exposures to ambient particulate matter and residential distance to roadway, as a proxy for traffic-related exposures. Methods: For participants in the Nurses’ Health Study, a nationwide prospective cohort of women, we estimated 72-month average exposures to PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 and residential distance to road. Follow-up for incident cases of lung cancer occurred from 1994 through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by smoking status was examined. Results: During 1,510,027 person-years, 2,155 incident cases of lung cancer were observed among 103,650 participants. In fully adjusted models, a 10-μg/m3 increase in 72-month average PM10 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.14], PM2.5 (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.25), or PM2.5–10 (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.20) was positively associated with lung cancer. When the cohort was restricted to never-smokers and to former smokers who had quit at least 10 years before, the associations appeared to increase and were strongest for PM2.5 (PM10: HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.32; PM2.5: HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.77; PM2.5–10: HR = 1.11; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.37). Results were most elevated when restricted to the most prevalent subtype, adenocarcinomas. Risks with roadway proximity were less consistent. Conclusions: Our findings support those from other studies indicating increased risk of incident lung cancer associated with ambient PM exposures, especially among never- and long-term former smokers. Citation: Puett RC, Hart JE, Yanosky JD, Spiegelman D, Wang M, Fisher JA, Hong B, Laden F. 2014. Particulate matter air pollution exposure, distance to road, and incident lung cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:926–932;
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2014; 122(9). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307490 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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