Article

Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older Women

Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60625, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 02/2012; 172(3):219-27. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.683
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic exposure to particulate air pollution may accelerate cognitive decline in older adults, although data on this association are limited. Our objective was to examine long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution, both coarse ([PM 2.5-10 μm in diameter [PM(2.5-10)]) and fine (PM <2.5 μm in diameter [PM(2.5)]), in relation to cognitive decline.
The study population comprised the Nurses' Health Study Cognitive Cohort, which included 19,409 US women aged 70 to 81 years. We used geographic information system-based spatiotemporal smoothing models to estimate recent (1 month) and long-term (7-14 years) exposures to PM(2.5-10), and PM(2.5) preceding baseline cognitive testing (1995-2001) of participants residing in the contiguous United States. We used generalized estimating equation regression to estimate differences in the rate of cognitive decline across levels of PM(2.5-10) and PM(2.5) exposures. The main outcome measure was cognition, via validated telephone assessments, administered 3 times at approximately 2-year intervals, including tests of general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency, working memory, and attention.
Higher levels of long-term exposure to both PM(2.5-10) and PM(2.5) were associated with significantly faster cognitive decline. Two-year decline on a global score was 0.020 (95% CI, -0.032 to -0.008) standard units worse per 10 μg/m(3) increment in PM(2.5-10) exposure and 0.018 (95% CI, -0.035 to -0.002) units worse per 10 μg/m(3) increment in PM(2.5) exposure. These differences in cognitive trajectory were similar to those between women in our cohort who were approximately 2 years apart in age, indicating that the effect of a 10-μg/m(3) increment in long-term PM exposure is cognitively equivalent to aging by approximately 2 years.
Long-term exposure to PM(2.5-10) and PM(2.5) at levels typically experienced by many individuals in the United States is associated with significantly worse cognitive decline in older women.

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    • "Exposure to high concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters below 10 µm (PM 10 ) has been reported to show strong association with mortality (Park et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2013), respiratory symptoms, brain function deficiency such as cognitive decline (Weuve et al., 2012), sleeping pattern disturbances in children (Abou–Khadra, 2013) and even the adverse birth outcomes (Sapkota et al., 2012). Ostro et al. (1999) reported for the city of Bangkok that a 10 μg/m 3 increment in the daily PM 10 concentration was associated with 1–2% increase in the daily natural mortality, 1–2% increase in cardiovascular mortality, and a 3–6% increase in respiratory mortality. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the relationship between the satellite Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) and the ground monitored concentrations of particulate matter (PM) mass and its major constituents (black carbon–BC, organic carbon -OC, sulfates and nitrates), respectively. Both component AOD and total AOD products of Multi–angel Imaging Spectro Radiometer (MISR) were used for comparison along with the AOD product of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The ground PM data available during the period from 2004 to 2010 at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), a suburb site of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, was used. MODIS and MISR AODs were validated against Sun photometer AOD, monitored at the Pimai AERONET station which showed strong linear regression with high R2 values of 0.87 and 0.92, respectively. The correlation coefficients between MODIS and MISR AODs and PM mass concentrations, respectively, were improved after exclusion of observations with cloud cover above 3/10. The R values (square root of determination coefficient R2) for linear relationships between PM10 and MODIS AOD were accordingly increased from 0.33 to 0.58 for MODIS AOD and from 0.25 to 0.54 for MISR AOD, while those for PM2.5 were improved from 0.30 to 0.55 for MODIS AOD and from 0.31 to 0.43 for MISR AOD. The stepwise regression was conducted to analyze the relationship between MISR component AODs and the mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, as well as their constituents. Higher R values were obtained for all regression equations using MISR component AODs as compared to those using total AOD. MISR component AODs showed higher capacity for monitoring daily BC (R=0.74–0.75) and sulfates (R=0.72), as compared to nitrates (R=0.52–0.54) and hourly OC (R=0.47). The potential of MISR component AODs for ambient PM monitoring should be explored and applied in other regions.
    Atmospheric Pollution Research 01/2015; Atmospheric Pollution Research. DOI:10.5094/APR.2015.008
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    • "Ambient GIS-based spatiotemporal exposure model predictions of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were available for all months between January 1988 and December 2007 for the continental United States. These values were generated for each address from nationwide expansions of previously validated spatiotemporal models (Weuve et al. 2012; Yanosky et al. 2008, 2009, in press). The models used monthly average PM 2.5 and/or PM 10 data from the U.S. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A body of literature has suggested an elevated risk of lung cancer associated with particulate matter and traffic-related pollutants. Objective: We examined the relation of lung cancer incidence with long-term residential exposures to ambient particulate matter and residential distance to roadway, as a proxy for traffic-related exposures. Methods: For participants in the Nurses’ Health Study, a nationwide prospective cohort of women, we estimated 72-month average exposures to PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 and residential distance to road. Follow-up for incident cases of lung cancer occurred from 1994 through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by smoking status was examined. Results: During 1,510,027 person-years, 2,155 incident cases of lung cancer were observed among 103,650 participants. In fully adjusted models, a 10-μg/m3 increase in 72-month average PM10 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.14], PM2.5 (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.25), or PM2.5–10 (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.20) was positively associated with lung cancer. When the cohort was restricted to never-smokers and to former smokers who had quit at least 10 years before, the associations appeared to increase and were strongest for PM2.5 (PM10: HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.32; PM2.5: HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.77; PM2.5–10: HR = 1.11; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.37). Results were most elevated when restricted to the most prevalent subtype, adenocarcinomas. Risks with roadway proximity were less consistent. Conclusions: Our findings support those from other studies indicating increased risk of incident lung cancer associated with ambient PM exposures, especially among never- and long-term former smokers. Citation: Puett RC, Hart JE, Yanosky JD, Spiegelman D, Wang M, Fisher JA, Hong B, Laden F. 2014. Particulate matter air pollution exposure, distance to road, and incident lung cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:926–932; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307490
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2014; 122(9). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307490
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    • "Recent epidemiological studies have found some evidence of an association between short-term exposure to high concentrations of ambient coarse PM and increased morbidity, and mortality risk, primarily due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and venous thromboembolic disease (Host et al., 2008; Graff et al., 2009; Malig and Ostro, 2009; Linares et al., 2010; Martinelli et al., 2012; Qiu et al., 2012; Karakatsani et al., 2012). Long-term exposure to high levels of coarse PM have recently been found to be associated with significant cognitive decline in older women (Weuve et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM), i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10-2.5), is of increasing interest due to the potential for health effects including asthma, allergy and respiratory symptoms. Limited information is available on indoor and outdoor coarse PM and associated endotoxin exposures. Seven consecutive 24-h samples of indoor and outdoor coarse PM were collected during winter and summer 2010 using Harvard Coarse Impactors in a total of 74 Edmonton homes where no reported smoking took place. Coarse PM filters were subsequently analyzed for endotoxin content. Data were also collected on indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate, housing characteristics and occupants’ activities. During winter, outdoor concentrations of coarse PM (median = 6.7 µg/m3, interquartile range, IQR = 3.4–12 µg/m3) were found to be higher than indoor concentrations (median 3.4 µg/m3, IQR = 1.6–5.7 µg/m3); while summer levels of indoor and outdoor concentrations were similar (median 4.5 µg/m3, IQR = 2.3–6.8 µg/m3, and median 4.7 µg/m3, IQR = 2.1–7.9 µg/m3, respectively). Similar predictors were identified for indoor coarse PM in both seasons and included corresponding outdoor coarse PM concentrations, whether vacuuming, sweeping or dusting was performed during the sampling period, and number of occupants in the home. Winter indoor coarse PM predictors also included the number of dogs and indoor endotoxin concentrations. Summer median endotoxin concentrations (indoor: 0.41 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.64 EU/m3) were 4-fold higher than winter concentrations (indoor: 0.12 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.16 EU/m3). Other than outdoor endotoxin concentrations, indoor endotoxin concentration predictors for both seasons were different. Winter endotoxin predictors also included presence of furry pets and whether the vacuum had a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Summer endotoxin predictors were problems with mice in the previous 12 months and mean indoor relative humidity levels.
    Atmospheric Environment 04/2014; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.04.025
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Luc LR Int Panis added an answer in Air Pollution:
    Air pollution epidemiology
    Several Epidemiological studies have consistently associated exposure to ambient air pollution with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
    (Brunekreef et al. 2002; Pope et al. 2002; Loft et al.2008)
    Luc LR Int Panis · Flemish Institute for Technological Research
    Do not forget about the neurological effects of air pollution.