Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reverses obesity and regulates appetite through a central mTOR pathway.
ABSTRACT Body weight is regulated by coordinating energy intake and energy expenditure. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has been shown to regulate energy balance in lower organisms, but whether a similar pathway exists in mammals is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that BMP7 can regulate brown adipogenesis and energy expenditure. In the current study, we have uncovered a novel role for BMP7 in appetite regulation. Systemic treatment of diet-induced obese mice with BMP7 resulted in increased energy expenditure and decreased food intake, leading to a significant reduction in body weight and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Similar degrees of weight loss with reduced appetite were also observed in BMP7-treated ob/ob mice, suggesting a leptin-independent mechanism utilized by BMP7. Intracerebroventricular administration of BMP7 to mice led to an acute decrease in food intake, which was mediated, at least in part, by a central rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. Together, these results underscore the importance of BMP7 in regulating both food intake and energy expenditure, and suggest new therapeutic approaches for obesity and its comorbidities.
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ABSTRACT: Adult humans have a substantial amount of inducible-brown (or beige) fat, which is associated with increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain via thermogenesis. Despite the identification of key regulators of beige adipogenesis, impacts of dietary factors on adaptive thermogenesis are largely unknown, partly due to a lack of validated human cell models. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is known to promote brown adipogenesis in rodent and human progenitor cells. However, controversy still surrounds the cellular identity in BMP7-mediated transition of white to brown adipocytes. The aim of this study was to confirm BMP7-derived human adipocytes as a relevant in vitro model of human beige adipocyte by verifying the cellular lineage and metabolic activity. In this study, we hypothesized that pre-exposure of the stromal vascular (SV) fraction of primary human adipogenic precursor cells (hASC) to BMP7 would convert metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our results showed that exposure of hASC to human BMP7 was associated with significant escalation of (1) UCP1 gene expression, a signature gene of brown adipocytes, (2) beige specific marker gene expression (i.e., CD137 and TMEM26), (3) glucose and fatty acid uptake, and (4) basal and cAMP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate compared to white adipocyte control. Taken together, we demonstrated that BMP7 mediates conversion of hASC into metabolically active beige adipocytes. By confirming the cellular identity and metabolic activity, this BMP7-induced human beige adipocytes from hASC should aid in the discovery and assessment of bioactive molecules to promote adaptive thermogenesis.Lipids 12/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Food intake is intricately regulated by glucose, amino acids, hormones, neuropeptides, and trophic factors through a neural circuit in the hypothalamus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most prominent neurotrophic factor in the brain, regulates differentiation, maturation, and synaptic plasticity throughout life. Among its many roles, BDNF exerts an anorexigenic function in the brain. However, the intracellular signaling induced by BDNF to control food intake is not fully understood. One candidate for the molecule involved in transducing the anorexigenic activity of BDNF is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). mTOR senses extracellular amino acids, glucose, growth factors, and neurotransmitters, and regulates anabolic reactions response to these signals. Activated mTOR increases protein and lipid synthesis and inhibits protein degradation. In the hypothalamus, mTOR activation is thought to reduce food intake. Here we summarize recent findings regarding BDNF- and mTOR-mediated feeding control, and propose a link between these molecules in eating behavior.Frontiers in Psychology 09/2014; 5:1093. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling molecules that belongs to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. Initially discovered for their ability to induce bone formation, BMPs are now known to play crucial roles in all organ systems. BMPs are important in embryogenesis and development, and also in maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. Mouse knockout models of various components of the BMP signaling pathway result in embryonic lethality or marked defects, highlighting the essential functions of BMPs. In this review, we first outline the basic aspects of BMP signaling and then focus on genetically manipulated mouse knockout models that have helped elucidate the role of BMPs in development. A significant portion of this review is devoted to the prominent human pathologies associated with dysregulated BMP signaling.Genes & Diseases. 07/2014;