Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reverses obesity and regulates appetite through a central mTOR pathway.
ABSTRACT Body weight is regulated by coordinating energy intake and energy expenditure. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has been shown to regulate energy balance in lower organisms, but whether a similar pathway exists in mammals is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that BMP7 can regulate brown adipogenesis and energy expenditure. In the current study, we have uncovered a novel role for BMP7 in appetite regulation. Systemic treatment of diet-induced obese mice with BMP7 resulted in increased energy expenditure and decreased food intake, leading to a significant reduction in body weight and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Similar degrees of weight loss with reduced appetite were also observed in BMP7-treated ob/ob mice, suggesting a leptin-independent mechanism utilized by BMP7. Intracerebroventricular administration of BMP7 to mice led to an acute decrease in food intake, which was mediated, at least in part, by a central rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. Together, these results underscore the importance of BMP7 in regulating both food intake and energy expenditure, and suggest new therapeutic approaches for obesity and its comorbidities.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The coordination of animal growth and development requires adequate nutrients. During times of insufficient food, developmental progression is slowed and stored energy is utilized to ensure that cell and tissue survival are maintained. Here, we report our finding that the Gbb/BMP signaling pathway, known to play an important role in many developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates, is critical in the Drosophila larval fat body for regulating energy homeostasis. Animals with mutations in the Drosophila BMP-5,7 orthologue, glass bottom boat (gbb), or in its signaling components, display phenotypes similar to nutrient-deprived and Tor mutant larvae. These phenotypes include a developmental delay with reduced overall growth, a transparent appearance, and altered total lipid, glucose and trehalose levels. We find that Gbb/BMP signaling is required in the larval fat body for maintaining proper metabolism, yet interestingly, following nutrient deprivation larvae in turn show a loss of BMP signaling in fat body cells indicating that Gbb/BMP signaling is a central player in homeostasis. Finally, despite strong phenotypic similarities between nutrient-compromised animals and gbb mutants, distinct differences are observed in the expression of a group of starvation responsive genes. Overall, our results implicate Gbb/BMP signaling as a new pathway critical for positive regulation of nutrient storage and energy homeostasis during development.Developmental Biology 11/2009; 337(2):375-85. · 3.87 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Expression of BMP- and GDF-related factors within the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily was examined in the rat and mouse brain by in situ hybridization. Strong signals were obtained in neurons for GDF-1 and GDF-10. GDF-1 is expressed at postnatal day 6 in the cerebral cortex, hippocampal CA1 through CA3 neurons, while only weakly expressed by cells in the dentate gyrus. Granule cells and neurons in the polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus are GDF-1-positive, as are the majority of neurons in the cortex. GDF-10 shows a distinct pattern of expression: At P6, strong labelling was seen in the superficial layers of cortex, notably in the posterior cingulate cortex, and in CA3 and dentate gyrus. From postnatal day 21, GDF-1 expression is strong in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamic nuclei, while GDF-10 expression becomes restricted to the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, OP-1 expression is restricted throughout development to cells of the medial habenular nucleus, choroid plexus, and leptomeninges. The markedly different expression patterns of these BMPs suggest they serve separate functions in the brain.Journal of Neuroscience Research 07/1999; 56(5):482-92. · 2.97 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) protein is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates cell-cycle progression and growth by sensing changes in energy status. We demonstrated that mTOR signaling plays a role in the brain mechanisms that respond to nutrient availability, regulating energy balance. In the rat, mTOR signaling is controlled by energy status in specific regions of the hypothalamus and colocalizes with neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Central administration of leucine increases hypothalamic mTOR signaling and decreases food intake and body weight. The hormone leptin increases hypothalamic mTOR activity, and the inhibition of mTOR signaling blunts leptin's anorectic effect. Thus, mTOR is a cellular fuel sensor whose hypothalamic activity is directly tied to the regulation of energy intake.Science 06/2006; 312(5775):927-30. · 31.20 Impact Factor