Triplet pregnancy in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) after double embryo transfer.
ABSTRACT At our research center, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) are bred by mating or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer. We typically transfer 2 embryos, because the pregnancy rate is better than that for single embryo transfer. In the case we present here, 2 embryos that had been frozen and thawed after ICSI were transplanted into a recipient female macaque, and a multiple pregnancy (3 fetuses) was confirmed. All 3 fetuses were miscarried between days 81 and 85 of pregnancy. One fetus, which was wrapped in the amnion, was expelled along with its own placenta and one other. Because the other placenta had 2 umbilical arteries, 2 fetuses may have shared it. Therefore, we believe this pregnancy was a case of triplets, including a set of twins from an embryo that divided after transfer.
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ABSTRACT: Twin birth rates have increased markedly in developed countries since the 1970s for two primary reasons: increasing maternal age and the advent and increasing use of fertility treatments. In addition, monozygotic (MZ) twin pregnancies have been reported to occur at a significantly higher rate following assisted reproductive technologies (ART) procedures compared with the natural incidence. Twin pregnancies are of concern due to a dramatically increased risk of associated complications. Monozygotic twin pregnancies carry a 10-20% risk of twin-twin transfusion syndrome, and monoamniotic monochorionic twins are additionally at risk for cord entanglement. While the mechanisms and contributory factors for dizygotic twinning are well established, very little is known about the mechanisms involved in MZ twinning or the factors that contribute to its occurrence. In this review, we will discuss a number of potential mechanisms involved in MZ twinning and explore factors that may be contributing to the increased incidence of ART-associated MZ twins. An improved understanding of the factors that contribute to increased MZ twinning associated with ART will help to elucidate the poorly understood mechanisms involved in the process and will further aid in reducing the overall incidence of multiple pregnancies with their associated risks following ART procedures.Reproduction 07/2008; 136(4):377-86. · 2.58 Impact Factor