Effect of periodontal pathogens on the metatranscriptome of a healthy multispecies biofilm model.
ABSTRACT Oral bacterial biofilms are highly complex microbial communities with up to 700 different bacterial taxa. We report here the use of metatranscriptomic analysis to study patterns of community gene expression in a multispecies biofilm model composed of species found in healthy oral biofilms (Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mitis, Veillonella parvula, and Fusobacterium nucleatum) and the same biofilm plus the periodontopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The presence of the periodontopathogens altered patterns in gene expression, and data indicate that transcription of protein-encoding genes and small noncoding RNAs is stimulated. In the healthy biofilm hypothetical proteins, transporters and transcriptional regulators were upregulated while chaperones and cell division proteins were downregulated. However, when the pathogens were present, chaperones were highly upregulated, probably due to increased levels of stress. We also observed a significant upregulation of ABC transport systems and putative transposases. Changes in Clusters of Orthologous Groups functional categories as well as gene set enrichment analysis based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways showed that in the absence of pathogens, only sets of proteins related to transport and secondary metabolism were upregulated, while in the presence of pathogens, proteins related to growth and division as well as a large portion of transcription factors were upregulated. Finally, we identified several small noncoding RNAs whose predicted targets were genes differentially expressed in the open reading frame libraries. These results show the importance of pathogens controlling gene expression of a healthy oral community and the usefulness of metatranscriptomic techniques to study gene expression profiles in complex microbial community models.
Article: An investigation into the changed physiological state of Vibrio bacteria as a survival mechanism in response to cold temperatures and studies on their sensitivity to heating and freezing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To induce pathogenic Vibrio bacteria into a changed physiological state, in response to cold temperatures in sea water, and assess their sensitivity to heating and freezing, as compared with normal cells. Cells of exponential phase Vibrio vulnificus, V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus were washed and inoculated into flasks of sea water, which were stored at 20 and 4 degrees C. Cells stored at 20 degrees C could be recovered after 60 d on non-selective agar (heart infusion agar; HIA) and on the selective agar (thiosulphate citrate bile salts agar) which is used in most Vibrio detection methodology. At 4 degrees C cells became non-culturable on both agars over time. The non-culturable cells appeared to be metabolically active and maintained their membrane integrity, whilst undergoing a change in morphology from rod-shaped to coccoid cells. Resuscitation was possible, in some cases, by an upshift in temperature before plating and the addition of catalase to HIA plates was found to increase recovery. Studies were carried out to assess the sensitivity of the non-culturable cells to heating and freezing compared with the normal cells. Vibrio organisms, whether culturable or in the non-culturable form, were not inactivated by freezing to -20 degrees C. Heating studies showed that V. parahaemolyticus was very heat resistant at low temperatures. However, a pasteurization regime of 2 min at 70 degrees C was found to be effective against all three strains. Experiments showed that the non-culturable cells of all three strains were similar in their heat resistance or, in some cases, were more heat sensitive than cells in the normal form. Cells in the changed physiological form would not be detected in fish or seafood products by the current Vibrio detection methods. Freezing had no effect in reducing cell numbers. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was very heat resistant in the low temperature pasteurization studies. The higher pasteurization regime of 70 degrees C for 2 min was effective against all three pathogens. Non-culturable cells had similar heat sensitivity or were more heat sensitive than cells in the normal state. SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study has highlighted a need for the development of better Vibrio detection methods. The low temperature pasteurization of oysters, which has been recommended in the USA, would not be adequate against the strain of V. parahaemolyticus used in this study. Heating regimes which were found to control cells in the normal form will also be effective for the control of the cells with changed physiology.Journal of Applied Microbiology 02/2002; 92(6):1066-77. · 2.34 Impact Factor
Article: The establishment of reproducible, complex communities of oral bacteria in the chemostat using defined inocula.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nine commonly isolated oral bacterial populations were inoculated into a glucose-limited and a glucose-excess (amino acid-limited) chemostat maintained at a constant pH 7.0 and a mean community generation time of 13.9 h. The bacterial populations were Streptococcus mutans ATCC 2-27351, Strep. sanguis NCTC 7865, Strep. mitior EF 186, Actinomyces viscosus WVU 627, Lactobacillus casei AC 413, Neisseria sp. A1078, Veillonella alkalescens ATCC 17745, Bacteroides intermedius T 588 and Fusobacterium nucleatum NCTC 10593. All nine populations became established in the glucose-limited chemostat although Strep. sanguis and Neisseria sp. were present only after a second and third inoculation, respectively. In contrast, even following repeated inoculations, Strep. mutans, B. intermedius and Neisseria sp. could not be maintained under glucose-excess conditions. A more extensive pattern of fermentation products and amino acid catabolism occurred under glucose-limited growth; this simultaneous utilization of mixed substrates also contributed to the higher yields (Y molar glucose) and greater species diversity of these communities. Microscopic and biochemical evidence suggested that cell-to-cell interactions and food chains were occurring among community members. To compare the reproductibility of this system, communities were established on three occasions under glucose-limitation and twice under glucose-excess conditions. The bacterial composition of the steady-state communities and their metabolic behaviour were similar when grown under identical conditions but varied in a consistent manner according to the nutrient responsible for limiting growth. Although a direct simulation of the oral cavity was not attempted, the results show that the chemostat could be used as an environmentally-related model to grow complex but reproducible communities of oral bacteria for long periods from a defined inoculum.The Journal of applied bacteriology 10/1985; 59(3):263-75.
Article: Veillonella montpellierensis sp. nov., a novel, anaerobic, Gram-negative coccus isolated from human clinical samples.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Three strains of a hitherto unknown, Gram-negative, anaerobic coccus were isolated from human samples. At the phenotypic level, the isolates displayed all the characteristics of bacteria belonging to the genus Veillonella. Sequence analysis revealed that the three strains shared >99.5% similarity in 16S rDNA sequence and >98.4% similarity in dnaK sequence. The three unknown strains formed a separate subclade that was clearly remote from Veillonella species of human and animal origin. Based on these results, the three strains were considered to represent a novel species within the genus Veillonella, for which the name Veillonella montpellierensis is proposed. The type strain of the species is ADV 281.99T (=CIP 107992T=CCUG 48299T).International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 07/2004; 54(Pt 4):1311-6. · 2.27 Impact Factor