Systematic evaluation of augmentation during treatment with ropinirole in restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease): Results from a prospective, multicenter study over 66 weeks

Sleep Research Institute, Madrid, Spain.
Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.63). 02/2012; 27(2):277-83. DOI: 10.1002/mds.24889
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of augmentation over 66 weeks of treatment with ropinirole in patients with primary restless legs syndrome (RLS). Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of RLS. Despite widespread use of ropinirole in RLS, no studies have prospectively and systematically assessed the incidence of augmentation with its use. The study consisted of 26 weeks of double-blind flexible-dose treatment with ropinirole or placebo, followed by 40 weeks of open-label ropinirole treatment.. Patients had no previous history of augmentation. Potential cases of augmentation were identified with the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Augmentation and the Augmentation Severity Rating Scale and through reporting of adverse events. Cases were blindly evaluated by an expert panel using the NIH diagnostic criteria for augmentation. Four hundred and four patients participated in the double-blind study and 269 in the open-label phase, with a discontinuation rate of 42%. IRLS baseline scores improved at the end of the double-blind (DB) phase (mean ± SE) by -15.9 ± 0.76 for ropinirole, by -13.4 ± 0.77 for placebo (P < .05) and by -20.4 ± 0.55 during the open-label phase. The incidence rates of augmentation were 3.5% for ropinirole and <1% for placebo during the DB phase and 3% during the open-label phase. Clinically significant augmentation occurred in 3%, <1%, and 2%, respectively. Discontinuation of treatment occurred in 50% of all patients (7 of 14) with augmentation. The incidence of augmentation was 3.1% higher with ropinirole than with placebo. New patients with first episodes of augmentation continued to cumulate at a stable rate over the duration of this study.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Augmentation has been known as the major complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). However, there have been no reports on the prevalence of augmentation in Korea. Thus, we aimed to assess the rate of augmentation and evaluate related factors in Korean RLS patients. Methods Ninety-four idiopathic RLS patients who have been treated over a period of at least 6 months were enrolled. Thirty subjects were treated with a dopamine agonist only, and 64 were treated with a dopamine agonist and alpha two delta ligands. We assessed the clinical characteristics of those RLS subjects and evaluated the rate of augmentation. Augmentation was assessed using the NIH criteria for augmentation by two RLS experts independently. Results Eleven subjects (11.7 %) were classified as having definitive or highly suggestive clinical indication of augmentation. In comparing the augmentation group with the non-augmentation group, there were no significant differences of baseline clinical characteristics. Four (13.3 %) of the dopamine agonists monotherapy group and seven (10.9 %) of the combination therapy group were categorized as augmentation. There was no significant difference in the augmentation rate between these two groups. Conclusions We found an 11.7 % augmentation rate in Korean RLS subjects. There was no difference in the rate of RLS augmentation between the dopaminergic monotherapy group and the combined treatment group. It may be related with using a similar dosage of dopaminergic drugs.
    Sleep And Breathing 08/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1007/s11325-014-1041-6 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    Edited by Sociedad Española de Neurologia, Sociedad Española de Sueño, 01/2013; Ed. Luzán 5. Madrid., ISBN: 978-84-7989-786-4
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a commonly occurring sensory motor disorder that might impair nocturnal rest causing decreased alertness, depression, reduced job performance and poor quality of life. In patients affected by severe RLS, a pharmacological treatment is mandatory. Areas covered: The present review is based on a search using PubMed from 1994 to 2014. It is focused on the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination and Toxicology (ADMET) characteristics of drugs currently used and under development for the treatment of RLS. Expert opinion: The drugs currently available for RLS treatment do not always provide an optimal control of symptoms. There is still need for effective and well-tolerated new drugs. Long-acting dopamine agonists showed better efficacy than short-acting compounds in the treatment of severe RLS. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the half-life of the compound and the development of augmentation. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors could be good candidates for initial treatment of RLS, sparing stronger dopaminergic agents for later stages of the disease. Oxycodone-naloxone demonstrated a significant and sustained treatment effect for patients with severe RLS insufficiently treated with first-line drugs and could be used as a long-term treatment in severe RLS when alternative satisfactory drug regimens are unavailable.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 08/2014; 10(10):1-16. DOI:10.1517/17425255.2014.952629 · 2.93 Impact Factor