Imaging of segmental testicular infarction: our experience and literature review.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the main methods of diagnostic imaging in patients with segmental testicular infarction (STI) for obtaining accurate clinical and therapeutic approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2004 and January 2011, 798 patients were examined with colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) for disease of the scrotum. Fourteen patients with CDUS findings suspicious for STI were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In five patients, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) was performed. RESULTS: CDUS showed hypoechoic avascular areas suspicious for STI in 14 patients (1.75%). MRI confirmed the presence of predominantly hypointense lesions in T1- and T2-weighted sequences, with perilesional vasculature and no intrinsic contrast enhancement in 13 patients. In follow-up examinations, these abnormalities gradually decreased. This finding was confirmed in the five patients examined with CEUS. Only in one case did MRI reveal discrete intralesional contrast enhancement after injection of contrast medium, and the lesions appeared stable during the CDUS and MRI follow-up; this patient underwent orchiectomy, with a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience CDUS, CEUS and MRI proved indispensable for accurate clinical and therapeutic approaches in suspected STI.