Keratinocyte dysplasia in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients in the day-28-to-84 posttransplantation period.
ABSTRACT Severe keratinocyte dysplasia (SKD) has been reported as a common event in the early posttransplantation period of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. The purpose of our study is to determine the possible causes of SKD during the intermediate posttransplantation period and to ascertain its prevalence in skin biopsies. Skin biopsy slides, obtained from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients who were days 28 to 84 posttransplantation, were evaluated for SKD. Forty-four examples of SKD were identified in 467 slides, or 9%. Thirty-seven patients were evaluated as cases in a case-control design. SKD was strongly associated with a conditioning regimen containing busulfan with an odds ratio of 7.25 (P = .0002). In a multivariate-adjusted analysis, SKD was not associated with cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, total-body irradiation, or a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. SKD was not associated with clinical acute graft-versus-host disease. SKD histology gradually resolved, reaching a normal histology after an average of 241 days. This study finds that severe keratinocyte dysplasia in the period 28 to 84 days post-HSCT is strongly associated with a busulfan-conditioning regimen.