Epidemiology and outcomes associated with surgical site infection following bariatric surgery.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a frequent problem complicating bariatric surgery. However, the potential risk factors, risk stratification, and outcomes of SSIs in this patient population remain poorly defined. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to characterize better the risk factors and to improve risk stratification for SSIs following bariatric surgery. METHODS: Patients studied had SSI following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBS) between November 2006 and March 2009 at Harper University Hospital and were each matched with 3 controls based on type of operative procedure, surgeon, and year of surgery. Thirty-day outcomes included mortality, hospital readmissions, outpatient procedures, and emergency room visits. A scoring system (BULCS score) was compared with the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index using logistic regression. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, duration of surgery (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-6.74), diagnosis of bipolar disorder (OR, 3.341; 95% CI: 1.0-12.27), use of prophylactic antibiotics other than cefazolin (OR, 4.2; 95% CI: 1.47-11.69), and sleep apnea (OR, 1.8; 95% CI: 1.05-2.97) were significantly associated with SSI. Patients with SSI were more likely to have return emergency visits (OR, 4.96; 95% CI: 2.9-8.48), readmission (OR, 6.53; 95% CI: 3.44-12.42), and outpatient procedures following surgery (OR, 4.75; 95% CI: 1.32-17.14) than were controls without SSI. The BULCS score was a stronger predictor of SSI than the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (C-statistic, -0.62 vs 0.55, respectively). CONCLUSION: SSI following bariatric surgery was associated with receipt of antibiotic prophylaxis other than cefazolin and comorbid conditions including sleep apnea and bipolar disorder. The BULCS score performed favorably as a predictor and risk adjuster for SSI following bariatric surgery. SSI was associated with increased health care resource utilization.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984-2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Results: Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8 y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative procedures and encounters.Surgical Infections 11/2013; · 1.87 Impact Factor