Article

Role of glycans and glycoproteins in disease development by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.
Critical Reviews in Microbiology (Impact Factor: 6.09). 02/2012; 38(3):250-66. DOI: 10.3109/1040841X.2011.653550
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glycoproteins play a critical role in host-pathogen interactions, antigenicity, and virulence determination, and are therefore, considered as potential drug targets. The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), dominantly contains sugars and lipids. Despite the efforts taken by the World Health Organization to reduce the incidence rate, the prevalence of TB is increasing in certain regions. This is mainly attributed to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Factors that contribute to Mtb virulence and antigenicity remain elusive. However, several studies have shown that sugars and lipids are mainly responsible for Mtb pathogenesis and resistance to numerous drugs. This review gives insight into the role of glycoproteins in mycobacterium pathogenesis, disease development, and its implications in drug development.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
275 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identification of reliable biomarkers for detection and staging of cancer and monitoring the outcome of anticancer therapy has been considered to be of high importance. We aimed to estimate the levels of serum glycoproteins, protein bound-hexose, protein bound hexosamine, protein bound fucose, protein bound sialic acid and protein bound carbohydrate in 32 ovarian cancer patients and compared them with the levels that found in 25 normal subjects. As compared to the normal subjects, all the four fractions of glycoproteins level were significantly elevated in ovarian cancer patients (p < 0.05). Chemotherapy in these patients significantly decreased the levels of serum glycoproteins (p < 0.05). Thus, high levels of serum glycoproteins in ovarian cancer patients could be due to abnormal protein glycosylation indicating malignant transformation of the cells.
    Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 07/2014; 29(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), kills about 1.5 million people every year worldwide. An increase in the prevalence of drug-resistant strains of Mtb in the last few decades now necessitates the development of novel drugs that combat infections by both drug-sensitive and resistant Mtb. Moreover, as Mtb can persist in host cells by modulating their immune responses, it is essential that anti-TB agents be able to penetrate macrophages and kill the pathogen intracellularly without harming the host cells. In this context, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins are being harnessed as anti-infective agents for the treatment of various diseases. Due to their direct and rapid bactericidal activity it is unlikely that pathogens acquire resistance against AMPs. Several short and potent AMP derivatives have been prepared by peptide engineering, and several of them are currently evaluated in clinical trials. The present review summarizes the role of endogenously expressed AMPs and proteins in the treatment of tuberculosis infections. In addition, mechanisms of direct anti-mycobacterial activity, manipulation of host immune responses, and future prospects of AMPs as therapeutic agents are discussed.
    Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 01/2014; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Species of the genus Mycobacterium differ in several features, from geographic ranges, and degree of pathogenicity, to ecological and host preferences. The recent availability of several fully sequenced genomes for a number of these species enabled the comparative study of the genetic determinants of this wide lifestyle diversity. Here, we applied two complementary phylogenetic-based approaches using information from 19 Mycobacterium genomes to obtain a more comprehensive view of the evolution of this genus. First, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships using two new approaches, one based on a Mycobacterium-specific amino acid substitution matrix, and the other on a gene content dissimilarity matrix. Then, we utilized our recently developed gain-and-death stochastic models to study gene turnover dynamics in this genus in a maximum likelihood framework. We uncovered a scenario that differs markedly from traditional 16S rRNA data and improves upon recent phylogenomic approaches. We also found that the rates of gene gain and death are high and unevenly distributed both across species and gene families, further supporting the utility of the new models of rate heterogeneity applied in a phylogenetic context. Finally, the functional annotation of the most expanded or contracted gene families revealed that the transposable elements and the fatty acid metabolism-related gene families are the most important drivers of gene content evolution in Mycobacterium.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 06/2014; · 4.76 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
115 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014