Mass reduction and functional improvement of the left ventricle after aortic valve replacement for degenerative aortic stenosis.
ABSTRACT Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy caused by aortic valve stenosis (AS) leads to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine whether aortic valve replacement (AVR) decreases LV mass and improves LV function.
Retrospective review for 358 consecutive patients, who underwent aortic valve replacement for degenerative AS between January 1995 and December 2008, was performed. There were 230 men and 128 women, and their age at operation was 63.2±10 years (30~85 years).
There was no in-hospital mortality, and mean follow-up duration after discharge was 48.9 months (2~167 months). Immediate postoperative echocardiography revealed that LV mass index and mean gradient across the aortic valve decreased significantly (p<0.001), and LV mass continued to decrease during the follow-up period (p<0.001). LV ejection fraction (EF) temporarily decreased postoperatively (p<0.001), but LV function recovered immediately and continued to improve with a significant difference between preoperative and postoperative EF (p<0.001). There were 15 late deaths during the follow-up period, and overall survival at 5 and 10 years were 94% and 90%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, age at operation (p=0.008), concomitant coronary bypass surgery (p<0.003), lower preoperative LVEF (<40%) (p=0.0018), and higher EUROScore (>7) (p=0.045) were risk factors for late death.
After AVR for degenerative AS, reduction of left ventricular mass and improvement of left ventricular function continue late after operation.
Article: Influence of the size of aortic valve prostheses on hemodynamics and change in left ventricular mass: implications for the surgical management of aortic stenosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Discussion of aortic valve replacement has primarily concerned the choice between tissue and mechanical prostheses. Less emphasis has been placed on prosthesis size. Despite technical advances increasing prosthesis orifice area, small valves implanted in the unenlarged aortic root may not be significantly less obstructive than the stenotic native valves they replace. In this work we studied 52 patients (31 women, 21 men; mean age 59.2 years) in whom valve prostheses sized 19, 21, 23, or 25 mm (30 bioprostheses and 22 tilting disc valves) had been implanted to replace stenotic aortic valves. Most patients with 19 or 21 mm prostheses were women. Doppler and conventional echocardiographic studies were performed in the 10 days preceding the operation and between 10 and 40 months (mean 18 months) after the operation. The patients receiving larger valve sizes had significantly larger body surface areas than those receiving smaller valve sizes (mainly women). No significant differences were observed between preoperative and postoperative diameters or left ventricular systolic function parameters, but left ventricular mass and mass index decreased in all four groups (albeit nonsignificantly in the 19 mm group, and with less statistical significance in the 21 mm group than in the 23 and 25 mm groups). Postoperative peak and mean transvalvular pressure drops were significantly greater in the 19 mm group than in the other groups, and the 21 mm group had significantly greater transvalvular pressure drops than the 25 mm group. Postoperative effective valve area was significantly smaller in the 19 mm group than in the 21 mm group, and significantly smaller in the 21 mm group than in the 23 and 25 mm groups. We conclude that despite undeniable recent improvements in the design of artificial heart valves, 19 mm aortic prostheses continue to create significant obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract and, possibly as a consequence of this, fail to bring about significant reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 09/1996; 112(2):273-80. · 3.41 Impact Factor