Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip or knee replacement: pooled analysis of major venous thromboembolism and bleeding in 8464 patients from the ADVANCE-2 and ADVANCE-3 trials.
ABSTRACT In order to compare the effect of oral apixaban (a factor Xa inhibitor) with subcutaneous enoxaparin on major venous thromboembolism and major and non-major clinically relevant bleeding after total knee and hip replacement, we conducted a pooled analysis of two previously reported double-blind randomised studies involving 8464 patients. One group received apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (plus placebo injection) starting 12 to 24 hours after operation, and the other received enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily (and placebo tablets) starting 12 hours (± 3) pre-operatively. Each regimen was continued for 12 days (± 2) after knee and 35 days (± 3) after hip arthroplasty. All outcomes were centrally adjudicated. Major venous thromboembolism occurred in 23 of 3394 (0.7%) evaluable apixaban patients and in 51 of 3394 (1.5%) evaluable enoxaparin patients (risk difference, apixaban minus enoxaparin, -0.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.2 to -0.3); two-sided p = 0.001 for superiority). Major bleeding occurred in 31 of 4174 (0.7%) apixaban patients and 32 of 4167 (0.8%) enoxaparin patients (risk difference -0.02% (95% CI -0.4 to 0.4)). Combined major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding occurred in 182 (4.4%) apixaban patients and 206 (4.9%) enoxaparin patients (risk difference -0.6% (95% CI -1.5 to 0.3)). Apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily is more effective than enoxaparin 40 mg once daily without increased bleeding.
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ABSTRACT: New, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been developed to overcome the limitations of warfarin. These include dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, which inhibit factor Xa. In the US, rivaroxaban and apixaban are licensed for thromboprophylaxis after elective hip or knee arthroplasty, and rivaroxaban and dabigatran are approved for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban also are licensed for stroke prevention in eligible patients with atrial fibrillation. Designed to be given in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring, the NOACs are more convenient to administer than warfarin. Phase III clinical trials have shown that the NOACs are at least as effective as warfarin and are associated with less intracranial bleeding. This article compares the pharmacological properties of the NOACs with those of warfarin, describes the clinical trial data with the NOACs in the approved indications, outlines the unmet medical needs that the NOACs address, highlights the potential limitations of the NOACs, and provides guidance on the optimal use of the NOACs.F1000prime reports. 01/2014; 6:93.
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ABSTRACT: Thrombosis is the common pathology underlying ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) documented that ischemic heart disease and stroke collectively caused 1 in 4 deaths worldwide. GBD 2010 did not report data for VTE as a cause of death and disability.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2014; · 5.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings from clinically important publications over the last year in the area of VTE. In this review, we discuss 11 randomized controlled trials published from March 2013 to April 2014. The COAG and the EU-PACT trials indicate that pharmacogenetic testing has either no usefulness in the initial dosing of vitamin K antagonists or marginal usefulness in the Caucasian population. Recent clinical trials with novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have demonstrated that the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and dabigatran are not inferior to those of conventional anticoagulants for the treatment of VTE. The PEITHO and ULTIMA trials suggested that rescue thrombolysis or catheter-directed thrombolysis may maximize the clinical benefits and minimize the bleeding risk. Lastly, riociguat has a proven efficacy in treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. In the future, NOACs, riociguat, and catheter-directed thrombolysis have the potential to revolutionize the management of patients with VTE.Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 09/2014; 77(3):105-10.