Effect of exercise training on nitric oxide and superoxide/H2O2 signaling pathways in collateral-dependent porcine coronary arterioles
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.06). 02/2012; 112(9):1546-55. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01248.2011
Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) has been shown to contribute to enhanced vascular function after exercise training. Recent studies have revealed that relatively low concentrations of reactive oxygen species can contribute to endothelium-dependent vasodilation under physiological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training enhances endothelial function via endothelium-derived vasodilators, NO and superoxide/H(2)O(2), in the underlying setting of chronic coronary artery occlusion. An ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery to induce gradual occlusion in Yucatan miniature swine. At 8 wk postoperatively, pigs were randomly assigned to sedentary (pen-confined) or exercise-training (treadmill-run: 5 days/wk for 14 wk) regimens. Exercise training significantly enhanced concentration-dependent, bradykinin-mediated dilation in cannulated collateral-dependent arterioles (∼130 μm diameter) compared with sedentary pigs. NOS inhibition reversed training-enhanced dilation at low bradykinin concentrations in collateral-dependent arterioles, although increased dilation persisted at higher bradykinin concentrations. Total and phosphorylated (Ser(1179)) endothelial NOS protein levels were significantly increased in arterioles from collateral-dependent compared with the nonoccluded region, independent of exercise. The H(2)O(2) scavenger polyethylene glycol-catalase abolished the training-enhanced bradykinin-mediated dilation in collateral-dependent arterioles; similar results were observed with the SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate. Fluorescence measures of bradykinin-stimulated H(2)O(2) levels were significantly increased by exercise training, independent of occlusion. The NADPH inhibitor apocynin significantly attenuated bradykinin-mediated dilation in arterioles of exercise-trained, but not sedentary, pigs and was associated with significantly increased protein levels of the NADPH subunit p67phox. These data provide evidence that, in addition to NO, the superoxide/H(2)O(2) signaling pathway significantly contributes to exercise training-enhanced endothelium-mediated dilation in collateral-dependent coronary arterioles.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Test the hypothesis that exercise training increases the contribution of BKCa channels to endothelium‐mediated dilation in coronary arterioles from collateral‐dependent myocardial regions of chronically occluded pig hearts and may function downstream of H2O2. Methods An ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery to induce gradual occlusion in Yucatan miniature swine. Eight weeks postoperatively, pigs were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise training (treadmill; 14 week) regimens. ResultsExercise training significantly enhanced bradykinin‐mediated dilation in collateral‐dependent arterioles (~125 μm diameter) compared with sedentary pigs. The BKCa‐channel blocker, iberiotoxin alone or in combination with the H2O2 scavenger, polyethylene glycol catalase, reversed exercise training‐enhanced dilation in collateral‐dependent arterioles. Iberiotoxin‐sensitive whole‐cell K+ currents (i.e., BKCa‐channel currents) were not different between smooth muscle cells of nonoccluded and collateral‐dependent arterioles of sedentary and exercise trained groups. Conclusions These data provide evidence that BKCa‐channel activity contributes to exercise training‐enhanced endothelium‐dependent dilation in collateral‐dependent coronary arterioles despite no change in smooth muscle BKCa‐channel current. Taken together, our findings suggest that a component of the bradykinin signaling pathway, which stimulates BKCa channels, is enhanced by exercise training in collateral‐dependent arterioles and suggest a potential role for H2O2 as the mediator.Microcirculation 02/2013; 20(2). DOI:10.1111/micc.12016 · 2.57 Impact Factor
- Asian Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2013; 4(2):163-164.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be one of the most important regulatory compounds within the cardiovascular system where it is central for functions such as regulation of blood pressure, blood flow and vascular growth. The bioavailability of NO is determined by a balance between, on one hand, the extent of enzymatic and non-enzymatic formation of NO and on the other hand, removal of NO, which in part is dependent on the reaction of NO with reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presence of ROS is dependent on the extent of ROS formation via mitochondria and/or enzymes such as NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase and the degree of ROS removal through the antioxidant defense system. The development of cardiovascular disease has been proposed to be closely related to a reduced bioavailability of NO in parallel with an increased presence of ROS. Excessive levels of ROS not only lower the bioavailability of NO but may also cause cellular damage in the cardiovascular system. Physical activity has been shown to greatly improve cardiovascular function, in part through improved bioavailability of NO, enhanced endogenous antioxidant defense and a lowering of the expression of ROS forming enzymes. Regular physical activity is therefore likely to be a highly useful tool in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Future studies should focus on which form of exercise that may be most optimal for enhancing NO bioavailability and improving cardiovascular health.Free Radical Research 08/2013; 48(1). DOI:10.3109/10715762.2013.835045 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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