The gene-specific codon counting database: A genome-based catalog of one-, two-, three-, four- and five-codon combinations present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes

Department of Computer Science, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA.
Database The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation (Impact Factor: 3.37). 01/2012; 2012:bas002. DOI: 10.1093/database/bas002
Source: PubMed


A codon consists of three nucleotides and functions during translation to dictate the insertion of a specific amino acid in a growing peptide or, in the case of stop codons, to specify the completion of protein synthesis. There are 64 possible single codons and there are 4096 double, 262 144 triple, 16 777 216 quadruple and 1 073 741 824 quintuple codon combinations available for use by specific genes and genomes. In order to evaluate the use of specific single, double, triple, quadruple and quintuple codon combinations in genes and gene networks, we have developed a codon counting tool and employed it to analyze 5780 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. We have also developed visualization approaches, including codon painting, combination and bar graphs, and have used them to identify distinct codon usage patterns in specific genes and groups of genes. Using our developed Gene-Specific Codon Counting Database, we have identified extreme codon runs in specific genes. We have also demonstrated that specific codon combinations or usage patterns are over-represented in genes whose corresponding proteins belong to ribosome or translation-associated biological processes. Our resulting database provides a mineable list of multi-codon data and can be used to identify unique sequence runs and codon usage patterns in individual and functionally linked groups of genes.Database URL:

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