From transcriptional profiling to tumor biology in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
ABSTRACT This review summarizes the way in which inherited mutations define global gene expression in pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL), and how the use of gene expression analysis has advanced our understanding of these diseases. The biology of PCC and PGL tumors is diverse and it has become clear that there is no apparent single biology that defines these tumors. However, over the last 20 years, our understanding of the biology of PGL and PCC has been considerably advanced by the discovery of inherited mutations that predispose individuals to developing the disease. More recently, the use of transcriptomics to stratify tumors based on their gene expression profiles has, in particular, played a vital role in delineating novel mutations involved in the pathogenesis of these tumors. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the biology of cluster 1 (pseudohypoxic) tumors and how mutations that result in the pseudohypoxic phenotype that leads to changes in global gene expression. We also review the advances in our understanding of cluster 2 tumors, and in particular, focus on the newly described MAX tumors.
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ABSTRACT: The pheochromocytomas are an important cause of secondary hypertension. Although pheochromocytoma susceptibility may be associated with germline mutations in the tumor-suppressor genes VHL and NF1 and in the proto-oncogene RET, the genetic basis for most cases of nonsyndromic familial pheochromocytoma is unknown. Recently, pheochromocytoma susceptibility has been associated with germline SDHD mutations. Germline SDHD mutations were originally described in hereditary paraganglioma, a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by vascular tumors in the head and the neck, most frequently at the carotid bifurcation. The gene products of two components of succinate dehydrogenase, SDHC and SDHD, anchor the gene products of two other components, SDHA and SDHB, which form the catalytic core, to the inner-mitochondrial membrane. Although mutations in SDHC and in SDHD may cause hereditary paraganglioma, germline SDHA mutations are associated with juvenile encephalopathy, and the phenotypic consequences of SDHB mutations have not been defined. To investigate the genetic causes of pheochromocytoma, we analyzed SDHB and SDHC, in familial and in sporadic cases. Inactivating SDHB mutations were detected in two of the five kindreds with familial pheochromocytoma, two of the three kindreds with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma susceptibility, and 1 of the 24 cases of sporadic pheochromocytoma. These findings extend the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and tumorigenesis and suggest that germline SDHB mutations are an important cause of pheochromocytoma susceptibility.The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2001; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Warburg effect describes how cancer cells down-regulate their aerobic respiration and preferentially use glycolysis to generate energy. To evaluate the link between hypoxia and Warburg effect, we studied mitochondrial electron transport, angiogenesis and glycolysis in pheochromocytomas induced by germ-line mutations in VHL, RET, NF1 and SDH genes. SDH and VHL gene mutations have been shown to lead to the activation of hypoxic response, even in normoxic conditions, a process now referred to as pseudohypoxia. We observed a decrease in electron transport protein expression and activity, associated with increased angiogenesis in SDH- and VHL-related, pseudohypoxic tumors, while stimulation of glycolysis was solely observed in VHL tumors. Moreover, microarray analyses revealed that expression of genes involved in these metabolic pathways is an efficient tool for classification of pheochromocytomas in accordance with the predisposition gene mutated. Our data suggest an unexpected association between pseudohypoxia and loss of p53, which leads to a distinct Warburg effect in VHL-related pheochromocytomas.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(9):e7094. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis that controls angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, and glycolysis via transcriptional activation of target genes under hypoxic conditions. O(2)-dependent binding of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein targets the HIF-1alpha subunit for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The activity of the HIF-1alpha transactivation domains is also O(2) regulated by a previously undefined mechanism. Here, we report the identification of factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1), a protein that binds to HIF-1alpha and inhibits its transactivation function. In addition, we demonstrate that FIH-1 binds to VHL and that VHL also functions as a transcriptional corepressor that inhibits HIF-1alpha transactivation function by recruiting histone deacetylases. Involvement of VHL in association with FIH-1 provides a unifying mechanism for the modulation of HIF-1alpha protein stabilization and transcriptional activation in response to changes in cellular O(2) concentration.Genes & Development 11/2001; 15(20):2675-86. · 12.44 Impact Factor