Feasibility of initiating and sustaining registry-based immunization recall in private practices

Child Health Evaluation and Research Unit, Division of General Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109-5456, USA.
Academic pediatrics (Impact Factor: 2.01). 02/2012; 12(2):104-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2012.01.002
Source: PubMed


To assess the feasibility of initiating and sustaining immunization recall by private practices, including the barriers and costs, using a statewide immunization information system (IIS).
Private practices in southeast Michigan were recruited in 2007 to perform IIS-based immunization recalls. Enrolled practices were provided with training and asked to conduct 4 recalls during the course of 12 months of children 19 to 35 months of age. Each practice recorded the time they spent performing recall-related activities; labor costs were estimated. Formative and summative evaluations with semistructured interviews were conducted to identify barriers.
Of 97 eligible pediatric and family medicine practices, 44 declined to participate, 32 did not respond to repeated contacts, and 20 agreed to enroll in the study (21%). A total of 56 recalls were conducted during the study period, with 9 practices completing at least 4 recalls and 7 practices completing 1 to 3 recalls; 4 practices conducted no recalls. Common barriers reported included time constraints and executing all steps of the recalls. Practice costs per patient recalled ranged from $0.05 to more than $6 and were primarily driven by the type of personnel who performed recalls. The costs of creating a roster of current patients comprised nearly one-half of total labor costs.
Few private provider practices that we contacted were willing to participate in this study of IIS-based recall, and less than one-half of enrolled practices completed the desired 4 recall cycles in 12 months. Time constraints and other real-world problems should not be underestimated in determining the feasibility of practice-based immunization recall. Efforts to increase the use of a statewide IIS for recall in private practice settings should emphasize ongoing training and technical support to practice staff. Improved interoperability with electronic health record systems may foster practice-based recall by reducing the labor intensity of roster building and other recall activities.

19 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the impact of a managed care-based patient reminder/recall system on immunization rates and preventive care visits among low-income adolescents. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial between December 2009 and December 2010 that assigned adolescents aged 11-17 years to one of three groups: mailed letter, telephone reminders, or control. Publicly insured youths (n = 4115) were identified in 37 participating primary care practices. The main outcome measures were immunization rates for routine vaccines (meningococcus, pertussis, HPV) and preventive visit rates at study end. Results: Intervention and control groups were similar at baseline for demographics, immunization rates, and preventive visits. Among adolescents who were behind at the start, immunization rates at study end increased by 21% for mailed (P < .01 vs control), 17% for telephone (P < .05), and 13% for control groups. The proportion of adolescents with a preventive visit (within 12 months) was: mailed (65%; P < .01), telephone (63%; P < .05), and controls (59%). The number needed to treat for an additional fully vaccinated adolescent was 14 for mailed and 25 for telephone reminders; for an additional preventive visit, it was 17 and 29. The intervention cost $18.78 (mailed) or $16.68 (phone) per adolescent per year to deliver. The cost per additional adolescent fully vaccinated was $463.99 for mailed and $714.98 for telephone; the cost per additional adolescent receiving a preventive visit was $324.75 and $487.03. Conclusions: Managed care-based mail or telephone reminder/recall improved adolescent immunizations and preventive visits, with modest costs and modest impact.
    Academic pediatrics 01/2013; 13(3). DOI:10.1016/j.acap.2013.01.002 · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunization information systems (IIS) have been useful for consolidating immunization data and increasing coverage, and have the potential to be a valuable resource for immunization research, but the extent which IIS data are used for research purposes has not been evaluated. We reviewed studies conducted using data from federally supported state and city immunization program IIS, and categorized research type based on study objectives to evaluate patterns in the types of research conducted. Research papers using IIS data published between 1999 and July 3, 2012 were identified by searching the CDC IIS publication database and PubMed. These searches produced 304 and 884 papers, respectively, 44 of which were eligible to be included in this evaluation. The most common research category was evaluation of factors associated with vaccine coverage and vaccine coverage estimates (n = 20). This study shows that IIS may not be used to their full potential with regards to research. Further research is needed to determine barriers to using IIS data for research purposes.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 02/2013; 9(6). DOI:10.4161/hv.24033 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We evaluated the use of a statewide immunization information system (IIS) to target influenza vaccine reminders to high-risk children during a pandemic. Methods: We used Michigan's IIS to identify high-risk children (i.e., those with ≥ 1 chronic condition) aged 6 months to 18 years with no record of pH1N1 vaccination among children currently or previously enrolled in Medicaid (n = 202,133). Reminders were mailed on December 7, 2009. We retrospectively assessed children's eligibility for evaluation and compared influenza vaccination rates across 3 groups on the basis of their high-risk and reminder status. Results: Of the children sent reminders, 53,516 were ineligible. Of the remaining 148,617 children, vaccination rates were higher among the 142,383 high-risk children receiving reminders than among the 6234 high-risk children with undeliverable reminders and the 142,383 control group children without chronic conditions who were not sent reminders. Conclusions: Midseason reminders to parents of unvaccinated high-risk children with current or past Medicaid enrollment were associated with increased pH1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination rates. Future initiatives should consider strategies to expand targeting of high-risk groups and improve IIS reporting during pandemic events.
    American Journal of Public Health 11/2013; 104(1). DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301662 · 4.55 Impact Factor
Show more


19 Reads