Engineering fibrotic tissue in pancreatic cancer: a novel three-dimensional model to investigate nanoparticle delivery.
ABSTRACT Pancreatic cancer contains both fibrotic tissue and tumor cells with embedded vasculature. Therefore anti-cancer nanoparticles need to extravasate from tumor vasculature and permeate thick fibrotic tissue to target tumor cells. To date, permeation of drugs has been investigated in vitro using monolayer models. Since three-dimensional migration of nanoparticles cannot be analyzed in a monolayer model, we established a novel, three-dimensional, multilayered, in vitro model of tumor fibrotic tissue, using our hierarchical cell manipulation technique with K643f fibroblasts derived from a murine pancreatic tumor model. NIH3T3 normal fibroblasts were used in comparison. We analyzed the size-dependent effect of nanoparticles on permeation in this experimental model using fluorescent dextran molecules of different molecular weights. The system revealed permeation decreased as number of layers of cultured cells increased, or as molecule size increased. Furthermore, we showed changes in permeation depended on the source of the fibroblasts. Observations of this sort cannot be made in conventional monolayer culture systems. Thus our novel technique provides a promising in vitro means to investigate permeation of nanoparticles in fibrotic tissue, when both type and number of fibroblasts can be regulated.
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ABSTRACT: We have developed an experimental system to measure the permeability of the cultured endothelial monolayer. The luminal-to-abluminal flux of 125I-albumin across cultured pulmonary endothelium was expressed as a clearance rate equal to the permeability-surface area product. After clearance rate measurement for a 30-min base-line period, a test agent was added to the luminal side, and the clearance rate was remeasured during a 30-min experimental period. In control studies the base-line clearance rate was 0.343 +/- 0.017 microliter/min. After correction for the diffusional resistances of the filter and unstirred layers, the calculated permeability of the endothelial monolayer was 1.2 X 10(-5) cm/s. When culture medium was the test agent, the experimental clearance rate was unchanged from the base-line value. After addition of 4 mM oleic acid to the luminal chamber, the clearance rate was 0.528 +/- 0.017 microliter/min compared with a base-line value of 0.330 +/- 0.008 microliter/min (P less than 0.005). This method allows the calculation of endothelial permeability with correction for unstirred layers and the use of each monolayer as its own control.Journal of Applied Physiology 04/1987; 62(3):1076-83. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this review we summarized the evidence favoring the concept that the major plasma proteins are passively transported across vascular walls through water-filled pathways by means of convection and diffusion. With regard to solute transport, a majority of microvascular walls seems to show a bimodal size selectivity. This implies the presence of a high frequency of functional small pores, restricting proteins, and an extremely low number of non-size-selective pathways, permitting the passage of macromolecules from blood to tissue, here denoted large pores. We discussed the general behavior of such a heteroporous system. A major consequence of two-pore heteroporosity is that large-solute transport must mainly occur due to convection through large pores at low filtration rates, that is, at normal or even zero lymph flows. Indeed, convection must be the predominating transport mode for most solutes across large pores when the net filtration rate is zero. Under these (transient) conditions, the convective leak of macromolecules across large pores will be counterbalanced by absorption of essentially protein-free fluid through protein-restrictive pores. In a heteroporous membrane, proteins can thus be transported by solvent drag across vascular walls in the absence of a net convection. Normally the steady-state transcapillary fluid flow (lymph flow) is about equally partitioned among small and large pores, which makes lymph essentially a "half and half" mixture of protein-free ultrafiltrate and plasma. With increasing fluid flows, however, the plasma filtrate will be progressively diluted, eventually reaching a protein concentration largely in proportion to the fractional hydraulic conductance accounted for by the large pores (alpha L). Under these high lymph flow conditions, not only the large-pore transport but also the small-pore transport (of smaller macromolecules) will become convective. At low lymph flows, however, the small-pore transport of smaller macromolecules is usually mostly diffusive. An important implication of capillary heteroporosity is that single-pore formalism is inadequate for correctly evaluating the capillary sieving characteristics. With the use of homoporous transport formalism, the "lumped" macromolecular PS and sigma will therefore vary as a function of transcapillary fluid flow (Jv). However, it is approximately correct to use single-pore formalism for conditions when Jv is very high during steady state. Thus, if minimal sieving coefficients can be measured for macromolecules, then these values will accurately reflect (1 - sigma).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Physiological Reviews 02/1994; 74(1):163-219. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An antagonistic monoclonal antibody, designated EM164, has been developed which binds specifically to the human insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) and inhibits the proliferation and survival functions of the receptor in cancer cells. EM164 was initially selected by a rapid cell-based screen of hybridoma supernatants to identify antibodies that bind to IGF-IR but not to the homologous insulin receptor and that show maximal inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated autophosphorylation of IGF-IR. EM164 binds tightly to IGF-IR with a dissociation constant K(d) of 0.1 nM, inhibits binding of IGF-I and antagonizes its effects on cells completely, and has no agonistic activity on its own. EM164 inhibits IGF-I-, IGF-II-, and serum-stimulated proliferation and survival of diverse human cancer cell lines in vitro, including breast, lung, colon, cervical, ovarian, pancreatic, melanoma, prostate, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and osteosarcoma cancer lines. It also suppresses the autocrine or paracrine proliferation of several cancer cell lines. EM164 was the most potent antagonistic anti-IGF-IR antibody tested when compared with several commercially available antibodies. The in vitro inhibitory effect could be extended to in vivo tumor models, where EM164 caused regression of established BxPC-3 human pancreatic tumor xenografts in SCID mice. The antitumor effect of treatment with EM164 could be enhanced by combining it with the cytotoxic agent gemcitabine. These data support the development of EM164 as a candidate therapeutic agent that targets IGF-IR function in cancer cells.Cancer Research 09/2003; 63(16):5073-83. · 8.65 Impact Factor